Anti-Hyperuricemic and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effects of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

Document Type : Short communication


Pharmacology Department, VNU University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Viet Nam.


Background and objectives: Hyperuricemia is one of the major causes of gout and other oxidative stress-related diseases. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, an enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to uric acid, has been considered as one of the therapeutic methods for hyperuricemia. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. has been widely used in traditional medicine in Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperuricemic and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of extracts and fractions of Pogostemon cablin. Methods: The dried aerial parts of P. cablin were soaked in 70% ethanol at room temperature for 72 h and were successively fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 290 nm.  The hypouricemic effect of extract was investigated in normal and hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate. Results: Our results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of P. cablin was able to inhibit xanthine oxidase with IC50 value of 96.39 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Moreover, P. cablin ethanol extract was found to reduce blood uric acid in Swiss albino mice at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and increased renal excretion of uric acid. Conclusion:Pogostemon cablin and extracts and fractions may have the potential to prevent hyperuricemia and require further clinical research.


Main Subjects

  • Yu W, Cheng JD. Uric acid and cardiovascular disease: an update from molecular mechanism to clinical perspective. Front Pharmacol. 2020; Article ID 582680.
  • Dawson J, Walters M. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: future therapeutic targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006; 62(6): 633–644.
  • Kostic DA, Dimitrijevic DS, Stojanovic GS, Palic IR, Dordevic AS, Ickovski JD. Xanthine oxidase: isolation, assays of activity, and inhibition. J Chem. 2015; Article ID 294858.
  • Kelley EE, Khoo NK, Hundley NJ, Malik UZ, Freeman BA, Tarpey MM. Hydrogen peroxide is the major oxidant product of xanthine oxidase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010; 48(4): 493–498.
  • Xu F, Cai W, Ma T, Zeng H, Kuang X, Chen W, Liu B. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, industrial application, pharmacokinetics and network pharmacology of pogostemon cablin: a comprehensive review. Am J Chin Med. 2022; 50(03): 691–721.
  • Swamy MK, Sinniah UR. A comprehensive review on the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Pogostemon cablin: an aromatic medicinal plant of industrial importance. Molecules. 2015; 20(5): 8521–8547.
  • Azmi S, Jamal P, Amid A. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity from potential Malaysian medicinal plant as remedies for gout. Int Food Res J. 2012; 19(1): 59–
  • Wen S, Wang D, Yu H, Liu M, Chen Q, Bao R, Liu L, Zhang Y, Wang T. The time-feature of uric acid excretion in hyperuricemia mice induced by potassium oxonate and adenine. Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(15): 1–
  • Chien SC, Yang CW, Tseng YH, Tsay HS, Kuo YH, Wang SY. Lonicera hypoglauca inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid in mice. Planta Med. 2009; 75(04): 302–306.
  • Maiuolo J, Oppedisano F, Gratteri S, Muscoli C, Mollace V. Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. Int J Cardiol. 2016; 213: 8–14.
  • Liu N, Xu H, Sun Q, Yu X, Chen W, Wei H, Jiang J, Xu Y, Lu W. The role of oxidative stress in hyperuricemia and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitors. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021; Article ID 1470380.
  • Pacher P, Nivorozhkin A, Szabó C. Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. Pharmacol Rev. 2006; 58(1): 87–114.
  • Junren C, Xiaofang X, Mengting L, Qiuyun X, Gangmin L, Huiqiong Z, Guanru C, Xin X, Yanpeng Y, Fu P. Pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of Pogostemon cablin Benth: a review. Chin Med. 2021; 16(5): 1–20