Phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant activity of Verbascum sublobatum Murb. leaves

Document Type: Original paper


1 School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Golestan, Gorgan, Iran.


Background and objectives: The genus Verbascum, with nearly 360 species, is one of the largest members of Schrophulariacea family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Verbascum is represented by 43 species among them seventeen plants are endemic. Verbascum species are well known in folk medicine and are widely used for therapeutic purposes. Verbascum sublobatum Murb. grows wildly in north of Iran. Literature review has shown that there is no report on phytochemical investigation about V. Sublobatum leaves. In the present study, phytochemicals of the plants have been isolated and the antioxidant activity of the extracts from leaves of Verbascum sublobatum Murb. has been evaluated.  Methods: Dried and powdered plant were extracted with 70% methanol and then partitioned by chloroform, ethyl acetate, and buthanol. The ethyl acetae fraction showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity among the three fractions and was subjected to separation and identification. The separation and purification process were performed using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of FT-IR, NMR and UV data. Results: The isolated compounds which had flavonoid structure, were identified as apigenin and luteolin. Conclusion: The isolated compounds have been previously reported from other species of Verbascum which demonstrates the chemotaxonomic significance of the isolated compounds.


[1]  Yuldashev MP.  Flavonids of the roots of Verbascum songoricum. Chem Nat Compd.1996; 32(6): 925-931. 

[2]  Heywood VH. Flowering plants in the world. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

[3]  Klimek B, Olszewska MA, Tokar M. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and phenylethanoids in the flowers of Verbascum densiflorum and V. phlomoides by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2010; 21:150-156.

[4]  Klimek B. Hydroxycinnamoyl ester glycosides and saponins from flowers of Verbascum phlomoides. Phytochemistry. 1996; 43: 1281-1284.

[5]  Willuhn G. Verbasciflos. In: Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. Wichtl M, Ed. Stuttgart: Medpharm, 2004.

[6]  Rigano D, Formisano G, Basile A, Lavitola A, Senatore F, Rosselli G, Bruno M. Antibacterial activity of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids from Marrubium globosum ssp. Libanoticum. Phytother Res. 2007; 21: 395-397.

[7]  Turker AU, Gurel LE. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.): recent advances in research. Phytother Res.2005; 19: 733-739.

[8]  Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF. Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach. Sinauer: Sunderland, 1999.

[9]  Rechinger, KH. Verbascum L. in: Flora Iranica.  Graz: Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1981.

[10]  Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1996.

[11]  Tatli II, Akdemir ZS. Chemical constituents of Verbascum species. J Pharm Sci. 2004; 29: 93-107.

[12]  Tepe B, Daferera D, Sokmen A, Sokmen M, Polissiou M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae). Food Chem.2005; 90: 333-340.

[13]  Middleton EJ, Kandaswami C. The impact of plant flavonoids on mammalian biology: implications for immunity, inflammation and cancer. In: Harborne JB, Ed. The Flavonoids: Advances in research since 1986. London: Chapman & Hall, 1994.

[14]  Lapornik A, Prosek M, Wondra GA. Comparision of extracts prepared from plant byproducts using different solvents and extraction time. J Food Eng. 2005; 71: 214-222.

[15]  Fathiazad F, Delazar A, Amiri R, Sarker SD. Extraction of flavonoids and identification of rutin from waste tobacco leaves. Iran J Pharm Res. 2006; 3: 222-227.

[16]  Kang J, Li Z, Wu T, Jensen GS, Schauss AG, Wu X. Anti-oxidant capacities of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). Food Chem. 2010; 122: 610-617.

[17]  Kim HP, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS.Anti-inflammatory plant flavonoids and cellular action mechanisms. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004; 96(3): 229-245.

[18]  Chiang LC, Ng LT, Lin I, Kuo PL, Lin CC. Anti-proliferative effect of apigeninand its apoptotic induction in human HepG-2 cells. Cancer Lett. 2006; 237(2): 207-214.

[19]  Yin F,  Find all citations by this author (default).

[21]  Giuliano AE, Find all citations by this author (default).

[23]  Law RE, Find all citations by this author (default).

[25]  Van Herle AJ. Apigenin inhibits growth and induces G2/M arrest by modulating cyclin-CDK regulators and ERK MAP kinase activation in breast carcinoma cells. Find all citations in this journal (default).

[27]  Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(1A): 413-420.

[21]  Lopez-Lazaro M. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin. Mini-Rev Med Chem. 2009; 9(1): 31-59.

[22]  Lin Y, Shi R, Wang X, Shen HM. Luteolin, a flavonoid with potentials for cancer prevention and therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Tar. 2008; 8(7): 634-646.

[23]  Zand RS, Jenkins DJ, Diamandis EP. Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds. Breast Cancer Res Tr. 2000; 62: 35-49.

[24]  Buening MK, Chang RL, Huang MT, Fortner JG, Wood AW, Conney AH. Activation and inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human liver microsomes by naturally occurring flavonoids. Cancer Res. 1981; 41: 67-72.

[25]  Huang MT, Wood AW, Newmark HL, Sayer JM, Yagi H, Jerina DM, Conney AH. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phenolic plant flavonoids. Carcinogenesis. 1983; 4: 1631-1637.

[26]  Nimnual AS, Taylor LJ, Bar-Sagi D. Redox-dependent down regulation of Rho by Rac. Nat Cell Biol. 2003; 5: 236-241.

[27]  Robak J, Shridi F, Wolbis M, Krolikowska M. Screening of the influence of flavonoids on lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity, as well as on nonenzymic lipid oxidation. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 1988; 40: 451-458.

[28]  Patil SP, Find all citations by this author (default).

[30]  Jain PD, Find all citations by this author (default).

[32]  Sancheti JS, Find all citations by this author (default).

[34]  Ghumatkar PJ, Find all citations by this author (default).

Tambe R, Sathaye S.  Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of apigenin and luteolin in MPTP induced Parkinsonism in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2014; 86:192-202.