Hepatoprotective Activity of Caspian Saffron (Crocus caspius Fisch and Mey) Flowers against CCl4- Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

3 Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

4 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

5 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Free radicals and other oxidants have important roles in liver cell toxicity. Some natural products are potent scavengers of oxidative agents. Crocus caspius is an endemic species of Caspian forest. Flowers of Crocus genus contain phenolic compound and carotenoid as antioxidant agent. This study investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Crocus caspius Fisch and Mey flowers (Caspian saffron) hydro-alcoholic extract (CCFE) against acute oxidative hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Crocus caspius flowers were investigated for presence of certain phytochemicals and total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined. For evaluation of hepatoprotective activity, the BALB/c mice were pre-treated with 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg, of the extract intraperitoneally for 5 days and then received CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg, in olive oil). Liver injury was determined by serum biochemical markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione content of liver tissue and histopathological studies. Results: The phytochemical screening in Caspian saffron flowers indicated the presence of carotenoids, saponins, sterols, flavonoids, and tannins. The extract exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay (IC50 171.5 µg/mL). Pre-treatment groups with the extract demonstrated significant decrease in serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP (p<0.05) and concomitant increase in GSH content (p<0.05). Histopathological observation determined hepatocellular protective effects of the extract. Conclusion: The results represented the protective activity of the extract against oxidative hepatotoxicity.

Keywords


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