Biochemical and Histopathological Evidence for Beneficial Effects of Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil on the Rat Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Young Researchers & Elite Club, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. is an essential oil bearing plant used in traditional medicine of Iran for the treatment of inflammatory disease and pain, anxiety, sadness and also for the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms. Its pharmaceutical product is presently used in Iran for the treatment of depression disorders. Since colitis is a brain-gut interactive disorder, the authors were prompted to investigate the preventive effect of P. graveolens essential oil product (Deproherb®) to control the induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. Methods: Experimentally ulcerative colitis was induced by acetic acid in animals pretreated with three different doses of Deproherb® (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for five consecutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of Deproherb® were compared with orally administrated sulfasalazine (4 mg/kg). Biochemical [Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity] and macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the colon was performed. Deproherb® was also analyzed by GC and GC/MS in order to identify the potentially responsible compounds for observed property. Results: The obtained results indicated that the activity of MPO increased in acetic acid-treated groups, while it was recovered by pretreatment with Deproherb® (100-400 mg/kg) and sulfasalazine. All doses of Deproherb® and sulfasalazine-treated groups showed significant lower score values of macroscopic and microscopic characters when compared to the acetic acid-treated group. It was concluded that Deproherb® inhibited the acetic acid toxic reactions in the rat bowel. Conclusions: The present study proved the anti-inflammatory potential of Deproherb® Oral Drop, in the experimentally induced colitis. Proper clinical investigations are suggested to confirm the observed activities in human.

Keywords


[1] Kaser A, Zeissig S, Blumberg RS. Genes and environment: how will our concepts on the pathophysiology of IBD develop in the future? Dig Dis. 2010; 28(3): 395-405.

[2] Zhu H, Li YR. Oxidative stress and redox signaling mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease: updated experimental and clinical evidence. Exp Biol Med. 2012; 237(5): 474-480.

[3] Dodda D, Chhajed R, Mishra J. Protective effect of quercetin against acetic acid induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like symptoms in rats: possible morphological and biochemical alterations. Pharmacol Rep. 2014; 66(1): 169-173.

[4] Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ. Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and established and evolving therapies. Lancet. 2007; 369(9573): 1641-1657.

[5] Schultz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE. Rational phytotherapy: a physician's guide to herbal medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

[6] Ghafari H, Yasa N, Mohammadirad A, Dehghan G, Zamani M, Nikfar S, Khorasani R, Minaie B, Abdollahi M. Protection by Ziziphora clinopoides of acetic acid-induced toxic bowel inflammation through reduction of cellular lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006; 25(6): 325-332.

[7] Ghazanfari G, Minaie B, Yasa N, Nakhai LA, Mohammadirad A, Nikfar S, Dehghan G, Boushehri VS, Jamshidi H, Khorasani R, Salehnia A. Biochemical and histopathological evidences for beneficial effects of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil on the mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2006; 16(7): 365-372.

[8] Rahimi R, Mozaffari S, Abdollahi M. On the use of herbal medicines in management of inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review of animal and human studies. Dig Dis Sci. 2009; 54(3): 471-480.

[9] Ghanizadeh B, Shafaroodi H, Asgarpanah J, Sharifi Z. The anti-inflammatory effect of Pelargonium graveolens methanolic extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in Rat model. Clin Ther. 2015; 37(S8): 51.

[10] Lis‐Balchin M, Hart S, Roth G. The spasmolytic activity of the essential oils of scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae). Phytother Res. 1997; 11(8): 583-584.

[11] Maruyama N, Sekimoto Y, Ishibashi H, Inouye S, Oshima H, Yamaguchi H, Abe S. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of Geranium essential oil. J Inflamm (Lond). 2005; 2(1): 1-11.

[12] Abe S, Maruyama N, Hayama K, Inouye S, Oshima H, Yamaguchi H. Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by Geranium essential oil. Mediators Inflamm. 2004; 13(1): 21-24.

[13] Maruyama N, Ishibashi H, Hu W, Morofuji S, Inouye S, Yamaguchi H, Abe S. Suppression of carrageenan-and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice by geranium oil. Mediators Inflamm. 2006; Article ID Article ID 62537.

[14] Farzin D, Zarghami M, Khalaj L. Evaluation of antidepressant activities of rose oil and geranium oil in the forced swim test in mouse. Iran J Pharm Res. 2004; 3(S1): 70.

[15] Lis-Balchin M, Deans S, Hart S. Bioactivity of geranium oils from different commercial sources. J Essent Oil Res. 1996; 8(3): 281-290.

[16] Clark JD, Gebhart GF, Gonder JC, Keeling ME, Kohn DF. The 1996 guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. ILAR J. 1997; 8(1): 41-48.

[17] Adams R. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 1997; 8(6): 671-672.

[18] Ko JKS, Lam FYL, Cheung APL. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(37): 5787-5794.

[19] Wallace JL, Keenan CM. An orally active inhibitor of leukotriene synthesis accelerates healing in a rat model of colitis. Am J Physiol. 1990; 258(4): 527-534.

[20] Thangaraj P. Pharmacological assays of plant-based natural products. Springer, 2016.

[21] Ali B, Al-Wabel NA, Shams S, Ahamad A, Khan SA, Anwar F. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: a systemic review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015; 5(8): 601-611.

[22] Singh HP, Mittal S, Kaur S, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from residues of Artemisia scoparia. Food Chem. 2009; 114(2): 642-645.

[23] Lu Y, Foo LY. Antioxidant activities of polyphenols from sage (Salvia officinalis). Food Chem. 2001; 75(2): 197-202.

[24] Nivitabishekam SN, Asad M, Prasad VS. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Momordica charantia with rosiglitazone in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2009; 177(3): 247-253.

[25] Sharon P, Stenson WF. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in acetic acid colitis in rats: similarity to human inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1985; 88(1): 55-63.

[26] Elson C, Cong Y, Brandwein S, Weaver C, McCabe R, Mähler M, Sundberg JP, Leiter EH. Experimental models to study molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998; 859(1): 85-95.

[27] Rachmilewitz D. Coated mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) versus sulphasalazine in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. Br Med J. 1989; 298(6666): 82-86.

[28] Minaiyan M, Karimi F, Ghannadi A. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat. Res J Pharmacogn. 2015; 2(2): 1-12.

[29] Jahanshahi G, Motavasel V, Rezaie A, Hashtroudi AA, Daryani NE, Abdollahi M. Alterations in antioxidant power and levels of epidermal growth factor and nitric oxide in saliva of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig Dis Sci. 2004; 49(11-12): 1752-1757.

[30] Arnhold J. Properties, functions, and secretion of human myeloperoxidase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004; 69(1): 4-9.

[31] Krawisz J, Sharon P, Stenson W. Quantitative assay for acute intestinal inflammation based on myeloperoxidase activity. Gastroenterology. 1984; 87(6): 1344-1350.

[32] Pavlick KP, Laroux FS, Fuseler J, Wolf RE, Gray L, Hoffman J, Grisham MB. Role of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen in inflammatory bowel disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002; 33(3): 311-322.

[33] Conner EM, Brand SJ, Davis JM, Kang DY, Grisham MB. Role of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen in inflammatory bowel disease: toxins, mediators, and modulators of gene expression. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 1996; 2(2): 133-147.

[34] Boukhris M, Bouaziz M, Feki I, Jemai H, El Feki A, Sayadi S. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Lipids Health Dis.2012; 11(1): 81-91.