Acute and sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of ethanol extract of Solanum trilobatum Linn.

Document Type: Original paper


Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia.


Background and objectives: Solanum trilobatum plant parts such as berries and flowers are normally used for the treatment of respiratory illnesses. The toxicity profile of the plant and its parts are not clear. Hence, the present study was planned to investigate the toxicological effects of ethanol extract of leaves of S. trilobatum (EEST) using acute and sub-chronic toxicological methods in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Method: Leaves ofS. trilobatum were extracted with ethanol using hot percolation method. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxic effects of EEST were tested in SD rats. Acute toxicity testing was carried out as per guidelines set by OECD. In sub-chronic toxicity testing, animals were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg EEST for 30 days. During the study, the animals were monitored for changes in their behaviour at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood sample was collected from all animals for biochemical analysis, they were sacrificed and organs such as brain, lung, liver and kidney were collected for histopathological analysis. Part of the brain was used for estimation of dopamine and the remaining tissue was used for histopathological analysis. Results: In acute toxicity testing, EEST did not show mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In sub-chronic toxicity testing, EEST at 200 mg/kg and above doses caused cannibalism. At the end of the study, EEST decreased locomotor action and immobilization time. Histopathological analysis showed mild to moderate toxicity in 400 mg/kg treated animals and no significant changes were observed in biochemical parameters compared to control group. Conclusion: The present study concluded that, EEST exerted mild to moderate toxic effects on rodents. EEST caused cannibalism, increased the dopamine level in brain and histopathological alterations in lungs, liver and kidneys.


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