Anticonvulsant studies on a traditional antiepileptic mixture used by the Hausa people of north-western Nigeria

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.

2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.

3 Department of Pharmacology, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria.

Abstract

Background and objectives: The use of herbal drugs in the treatment of many neurological disorders is gaining popularity in developing countries due to their fewer unwanted side effects, affordability and cultural acceptability. A mixture of three plants roots Calotropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Combretum micranthum (Combretaceae) and Ficus abutilifolia (Moraceae) has been reported in Hausa traditional treatment of epilepsy. We have reported the evaluation of the acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the ethanol extract of this mixture. Methods: The intra-peritoneal medial lethal dose (LD50) of the aqueous ethanol extract of the mixture as well as its anticonvulsive activity against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), 4-amino pyridine (4-AMP) and maximum electric shock (MES) were evaluated. Results: The mixture at the doses of 25 to 100 mg/kg could not afford a significant protection to mice against PTZ and 4-AMP; however, it significantly delayed the mean onset and reduced the mean recovery time of the animals at the tested doses in 4-AMP test (p<0.05). Furthermore, it afforded a dose-depended protection to one-day-old cockerels against MES. The LD50 of the extract in albino mice was estimated to be greater than 1000 mg/kg. Conclusion: The present study suggest some level of protection by the extract of the traditional mixture against MES-induced seizure in chicks, thereby giving support to the traditional claim for its application in the treatment and/or management of convulsion and epilepsy.
 

Keywords


[1] World Health Organization. Epilepsy care in the world. Geneva: WHO Press, 2005.

[2] Azubuike JC, Nkanginieme KEO. Paediatrics and child health in a tropical region. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1996.

[3] Czapin´ski P, Blaszczyk B, Czuczwar SJ. Mechanisms of action of antiepileptic drugs. Curr Top Med Chem. 2005; 5(1): 3-14.

[4] Arroyo S, Morena A. Life-threatening adverse events of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Res. 2001; 47(1): 155-174.

[5] Samren EB, Duijn CM, Koch S. Maternal use of antiepileptic drugs and the risk of major congenital malformations: a joint European prospective study of human teratogenesis associated with maternal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1997; 38(9): 981-990.

[6] Wickenden AD. Potassium channels as antiepileptic drug targets. Neuropharmacology. 2002; 43(7): 1055-1060.

[7] Maiha BB, Magaji MG, Yaro AH, Ahmed ST, Hamza AH, Magaji RA. Anticonvulsant studies on Cochlospermum tinctorium and Paullinia pinnata extracts in laboratory animals. Nig J Pharm Sci. 2009; 8(1): 102-108.

[8] Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci. 2005; 78(5): 431-441.

[9] Karou D, Nadembega WMC, Ouattara L, Ilboudo DP, Canini A, Nikiema JB, Simpore J, Colizzi V, Traore AS. African ethno-pharmacology and new drug discovery. Med Aromat Plant Sci  Biotechnol. 2007; 1(1): 1-7.

[10] Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull World Health Organ. 1985; 63(6): 695-981.

[11] Danmalam UH, Abdulrahman A, Ahmed A, Yaro AH, Muhammed MG. Phytochemical and anticonvulsant activity of the ethanol extract of the root-back of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. F Br. (family: Asclepediaceae). Chemclass J. 2007; 4(1):113-116.

[12] Murti Y, Yogi B, Pathak D. Pharmacognostic standardization of leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae). Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010; 1(1): 14-17.

[13] Teixeira FM, Ramos MV, Soares AA, Oliveira RSB, Almeida-Filho LCP, Oliveira JS, Marinho-Filho JDB , Carvalho CPS.  In vitro tissue culture of the medicinal shrub Calotropis procera to produce pharmacologically active proteins from plant latex. Process Biochem. 2011; 46(5): 1118-1124.

[14] Burkill HM. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Kew: Royal Botanical Gardens, 1985.

[15] Danmalam UH, Idoko VE, Yaro AH, Magaji MG, Agunu A, Abdurahman EM. Phytochemical and anticonvulsant screening of the aqueous ethanol extract of Combretum micranthum G. Don. root (Combretaceae). Nig J Pharm Sci. 2011; 10(1): 32-38.

[16] Lima GRM, Sales IRP, Filho MRDC, Jesus NZT, Falcao HS, Barbosa-Filho JM, Cabral AGS, Souto AL, Tavares JF, Batista LM. Bioactivities of the genus Combretum (Combretaceae): a review. Molecules. 2012; 17(6): 9142-9206.

[17] Danmalam UH, Allahmagani PK, Ilyas N, Abdurahman EM, Yaro AH, Magaji MG. Phytochemical and anticonvulsant studies on the aqueous ethanol extract of the root-back of Ficus abutilifolia (Miq.) Miq. (family: Moracea). J Appl Pharm Sci. 2012;2(7): 234-237.

[18] Baumans V, Kelly H. Lab animal care: guidelines to good practice in housing and handling, 2011. Available from: https://www.alnmag.com/article/2011/03/lab-animal-care-guidelines-good-practice-housing-and-handling.

[19] Lorke D. New approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983; 54(4): 275-287.

[20] Swinyard EA, Brown WC, Goodman LS. Comparative assays of antiepileptic drugs in mice and rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1952; 106(3): 319-330.

[21] Yagamuchi S, Rogawski MA. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs on 4-amino pyridine-induced seizure in Mice. Epilepsy Res. 1992; 11(1): 9-16.

[22] Swinyard EA, Kupferberg JH. Antiepileptic drugs: detection, quantification and evaluation. Fed Proc. 1985; 44(10): 2629-2633.

[23] Browning R. The electroshock model, neuronal network and antiepileptic drug. In: Faingold CL and Fromm GH Eds. Drugs for control of epilepsy: actions on neuronal networks in seizure disorders. Boca Rotan: CRS Press, 1992.

[24] Macdonald RL, Kelly KM. Antiepileptic drugs mechanisms of action. Epilepsia. 1995; 36(2S): 2-12.

[25] Zhu HL, Wan JB, Wang YT, Li BC, Xiang C, He J, Li P. Medicinal compounds with antiepileptic/anticonvulsant activities. Epilepsia. 2014; 55(1): 3-16.