Authentication and quality control of some polyherbal oils used in Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM)

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

4 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

5 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Traditional polyherbal oils are still in use in Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM). Most of these formulations are prepared via traditional procedures such as maceration of herbs in oils or evaporating aqueous herbal extracts in boiling or heating oils as the vehicle. Thus, their quality control, standardization and authentication are real challenges due to the lack of scientific studies.  The present study provided data and methods to authenticate some of these oils and has compared applicability of different fingerprinting methods for their authenticity. Methods: Thirteen oils were prepared according to the traditional manuscripts. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) fingerprinting data were analyzed using MATLAB software. For HPTLC fingerprints a special coding system was designed according to the Rf values. The fingerprinting data were subjected to principal components (PCs) analysis. Melting point and thermal behavior of the oils were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Also, the refractive indices, acid and peroxide values were obtained for the oils. Results: The designed coding system for HPTLC was successfully able to produce a discriminative unique fingerprint for each sample. Among UV, IR and HPTLC fingerprinting, the last one seemed more reliable than others to authenticate the oils. The acid values (0.22-3.85), peroxide values (2.31-34.35 meq/kg) and refractive indices (1.4622 - 1.4706) were in acceptable ranges for most of these oils. Conclusion: Despite lack of knowledge about constituents of traditional polyherbal oils, this study was able to provide some data and fingerprinting methods for their authentication.

Keywords


[1] Abolhassanzadeh Z, Aflaki E, Yousefi G, Mohagheghzadeh A. Randomized clinical trial of peganum oil for knee osteoarthritis. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015; 20(2): 126-131.

[2] Shikov AN, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Makarova MN. New technology for preparation of herbal extracts and soft halal capsules on its base. Am Eurasian J Sustain Agric. 2009; 3(2): 130-134.

[3] Mikaili P, Shayegh J, Sarahroodi S, Sharifi M. Pharmacological properties of herbal oil extracts used in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Adv Environ Biol. 2012; 6(1): 153-158.

[4] Heravi MG. “Qarabadin-e-salehi”. Tehran: Dar-ol-khalafeh, 1765.

[5] Avicenna. Canon of medicine. Tehran: Soroosh Press, 1988.

[6] Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M, Mohammadi Motamed M, Ghorbani A. Labiatae family in folk medicine in Iran: from ethnobotany to pharmacology. Iran J Pharm Res. 2005; 4(2): 63-79.

[7] Huxtable RJ. The myth of beneficent nature: the risks of herbal preparations. Annals Intern Med. 1992; 117(2): 165-166.

[8] Emami M, Sadeghpour O, Zarshenas MM. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine. J Mid Life Health. 2013; 4(4): 210-215.

[9] Aghili Shirazi SMH. Qarabadin-e-Kabir. Tehran: Ostad Allah Qoli khan Qajar, 1855.

[10] Hamedi A, Mohagheghzadeh A, Rivaz S. Preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation and volatile constituent analysis of spathe of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Tarooneh). Phcog J. 2013; 5(2): 83-86.

[11] Pascual M, Carretero M, Slowing K, Villar A. Simplified screening by TLC of plant drugs. Pharm Biol. 2002; 40(2): 139-143.

[12] Hamedi A, Zarshenas MM, Sohrabpour M, Zargaran A. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine. Pharm Biol. 2013; 51(9): 1208-1218.

[13] Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Ardakani MS. The traditional Iranian medicine point of view on health and disease. Iran J Pub Health. 2009; 38(1): 169-172.

[14] Ram M, Abdin M, Khan M, Jha P. HPTLC fingerprint analysis: a quality control for authentication of herbal phytochemicals. In: high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Berlin: Springer, 2011.

[15] Sukumar D, Arimboor R, Arumughan C. HPTLC fingerprinting and quantification of lignans as markers in sesame oil and its polyherbal formulations. J Pharm Biomed Analysis. 2008; 47(4): 795-801.

[16] Dubey N, Dubey N, Mehta R, Saluja AK. Determination of psoralen and plumbagin from its polyherbal oil formulations by an HPTLC densitometric method. J AOAC Int. 2009; 92(3): 779-784.

[17] Oomah BD, Ladet S, Godfrey DV, Liang J, Girard B. Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil. Food Chem. 2000; 69(2): 187-193.

[18] Stillman R. The determination of chlorophyll in oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1954; 31(11): 469-472.

[19] Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by uvvis spectroscopy. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

[20] Casale M, Oliveri P, Armanino C, Lanteri S, Forina M. NIR and UV–vis spectroscopy, artificial nose and tongue: comparison of four fingerprinting techniques for the characterisation of Italian red wines. Anal Chim Acta. 2010; 668(2): 143-148.

[21] American Oil Chemists' Society. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 1994. Illinois: AOCS press, 1989.

[22] Kiritsakis A, Kanavouras A, Kiritsakis K. Chemical analysis, quality control and packaging issues of olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech. 2002; 104(9-10): 628-638.

[23] van de Voort FR, Ismail AA, Sedman J, Dubois J, Nicodemo T. The determination of peroxide value by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1994; 71(9): 921-926.

[24] Bensmira M, Jiang B, Nsabimana C, Jian T. Effect of lavender and thyme incorporation in sunflower seed oil on its resistance to frying temperatures. Food Res Int. 2007; 40(3): 341-346.

[25] Alimentarius Codex. Codex standard for named vegetable oils. Codex Stan, 1999. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2774e/y2774e04.htm.

[26] Cosio M, Ballabio D, Benedetti S, Gigliotti C. Evaluation of different storage conditions of extra virgin olive oils with an innovative recognition tool built by means of electronic nose and electronic tongue. Food Chem. 2007; 101(2): 485-491.

[27] European Union Commission. Regulation 1989/2003, Characteristics of olive and olive pomace oils and their analytical methods. Off J Eur Commun. 2003; 295: 57-66.

[28] Inarejos-García AM, Santacatterina M, Salvador MD, Fregapane G, Gómez-Alonso S. PDO virgin olive oil quality-minor components and organoleptic evaluation. Food Res Int. 2010; 43(8): 2138-2146.

[29] Subramanian R, Nandini KE, Sheila PM, Gopalakrishna AG, Raghavarao KS, Nakajima M, Kimura T, Maekawa T. Membrane processing of used frying oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2000; 77(3): 323-328.