Acute, Sub-acute and Cell Toxicity of Allium elburzense Bulb Hydroalcoholic Extract

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Office of Research and Development, Vice Chancellery for Food and Drug, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

10.22127/rjp.2020.216819.1552

Abstract

Background and objectives: Allium elburzense is an endemic plant in north of Iran with some nutritional and medicinal applications; however, there is no data on its safety profile. This study was aimed to investigate cytotoxicity, acute and sub-acute toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of A. elburzense bulb. Methods: Total phenolic content of the extract was measured using Folin-Ciocalteumethod. For cytotoxicity assay, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used. In acute toxicity study, single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg was administered in female and male Wistar rats and they were monitored for two weeks. In sub-acute test, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of extract were orally administered for four weeks. Results: Total phenolic content was estimated as 32.8 ± 2.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the extract. The extract showed IC50 value of 366.4 µg/mL (95% CI = 246.4-566.1) in HUVECs after 24 h exposure. In acute study, there was no sign of toxicity and no mortality; however, significant increase in relative spleen weight and ALP activity and mild inflammation in kidney tissue were observed. LD50 ˃ 2000 mg/kg was estimated for A. elburzense bulb extract. In sub-acute assay, there were significant elevations in relative spleen weight, blood urea level, AST, ALT, ALP, total WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil count and significant decrease in blood sugar and triglyceride levels at higher doses of the extract. Conclusion:Allium elburzense bulb extract may be considered as safe at doses lower than 500 mg/kg in rats; however, assessment of liver and kidney functions is recommended during chronic uses.

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