Assessment of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Aqueous Extract on CCl4- Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

Document Type : Original paper


1 Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.


Background and objectives: Tragopogon graminifolius DC. is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine as a gastro-protective and wound healer agent.  In the present study the hepatoprotective property of T. graminifolius DC. aqueous extract (TGAE) was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatocellular injury in mice. Methods:  Fifty male mice were divided into five groups (n=10). Group 1 (control) received 1 ml/kg olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and distilled water orally; Group 2 (untreated) received CCl4 (50% in olive oil, 1 ml/kg; i.p.); Groups 3, 4 and 5 received CCl4 and 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg of TGAE (TGAE30, TGAE90 and TGAE270), respectively. At the end of the 45-day treatment, the mice of all groups were euthanized, then blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histological parameters analysis. The data was analyzed by one way variance analysis and Duncan’s test using SPSS 21. Results:  Different doses of TGAE (especially TGAE270) could significantly (p0.05) reduce the raised levels of ALP, AST, ALT, Cholesterol, LDL and increased HDL, SOD, CAT as compared to the untreated group. The weight and volume of the hepatic structures decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in several doses of TGAE (especially TGAE270) when compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that under the present experimental conditions, TGAE indicated hepatoprotective abilities against CCl4 induced liver damage in mice.


Main Subjects

[1] Alter MJ. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2006; 44(1): 6-9.
[2] Lee CP, Shih PH, Hsu CL, Yen GC. Hepatoprotection of tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007; 45(6): 888-895.
[3] Alia M, Horcajo C, Bravo L, Goya L. Effect of grape antioxidant dietary fiber on the total antioxidant capacity and the activity of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats. Nutr Res. 2003; 23(9): 1251-1267.
[4] Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Najafi F, Tahvilian R. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Allium Saralicum R.M. Fritschon CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2017; 16(3): 227-238.
[5] Sherkatolabbasieh H, Hagh-Nazari L, Shafiezadeh S, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A. Ameliorative effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium saralicum R.M. Fritsch on CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: a stereological examination. Arch Biol Sci. 2017; 69(3): 535-543.
[6] Faramarzi E, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Moradi R. Effect of Cinnamomum zelanicumon oil on hyponeophagia anxiety test in Balb C male mice. Online J Vet Res. 2017; 21(2): 77-80.
[7] Foroughi A, Pournaghi P, Najafi F, Zangeneh A, Zangeneh MM, Moradi R. Antibacterial effect and phytochemical screening of essential oil of Pimpinella anisum against Escherichia coli O157:H7and Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Curr Med Pharm Res. 2016; 7(6):367-371.
[8] Tahvilian R, Moradi R, Zhaleh H, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Yazdani H, Hajialiani M. Chemical composition and screening of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Pistacia khinjuk against two selected pathogenic bacteria. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2017; 10(5): 1159-1164.
[9] Ghashghaii A, Hashemnia M, Nikousefat Z, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A. Wound healing potential of methanolic extract of Scrophularia striata in rats. Pharm Sci. 2017; 23(4): 256-263.
[10] Hagh-Nazari L, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Tahvilian R, Moradi R. Stereological study of kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice treated with ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana (bitter fraction). Comp Clin Pathol. 2017; 26(2): 455-463.
[11] Najafi F, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Hagh-Nazari L. Antidiabtic and hepatoprotective effects of bitter fraction of Stevia rebaudiana alcoholic extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male mice. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2017; 16(6): 493-504.
[12] Zangeneh MM, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh A, Tahvilian R, Najafi F. Amelioration of renal structural changes in STZ-induced diabetic mice with ethanolic extract of Allium saralicum R.M. Fritsch. Comp Clin Pathol. 2018; 27(4): 861-867.   
[13] Musabayane CT. The effects of medicinal plants on renal function and blood pressure in diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2012; 23(8): 462-468.
[14] Farzaei MH, Khazaei M, Abbasabadei Z, Feyzmahdavi M, Mohseni GR. Protective effect of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013; 15(9): 813-816.
[15] Farzaei MH, Ghasemi-Niri SF, Abdolghafari AH, Baeeri M, Khanavi M, Navaei-Nigjeh M, Abdollahi M, Rahim R. Biochemical and histopathological evidence on the beneficial effects of Tragopogon graminifolius in TNBS-induced colitis. Pharm Biol. 2015; 53(3): 429-436.
[16] Kroschewsky JR, Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Alston RE. Flavonoids from the genus Tragopogon (compositae). Phytochemistry. 1969; 8(8): 1495-1498.
[17] Sareedenchai V, Ganzera M, Ellmerer EP, Lohwasser U, Zidorn C. Phenolic compounds from Tragopogon porrifolius L. Biochem Syst Ecol.2009; 37(3): 234-236.
[18] Miyase T, Kohsaka H, Ueno A. Tragopogonosides A-I, oleanane sapo­nins from Tragopogon pratensis. Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(6): 2087- 2091.
[19] Vardavas CI, Majchrzak D, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I, Kafatos A. The an­tioxidant and phylloquinone content of wildly grown greens in Crete. Food Chem. 2006; 99(4): 813-821.
[20] Mroueh M, Daher C, Sibai ME, Tenkerian C. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Tragopogon porrifolius methanolic extract. Planta Med. 2011; 7(12): 72-77.
[21] Abei H. Catalase. In: Bergmeyer HU, Ed. Methods of enzymatic analysis. New York: Academic Press, 1974.
[22] Martin JP, Dailey M, Sugarman E. Negative and positive assays of superoxide dismutase based on hematoxylin autoxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987; 255(2): 329-336.
[23] Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Stereological tools in biomedical research. An Acad Bras Cienc.2003; 5(4):469-486.
[24] Nyengaard JR. Stereologic methods and their application in kidney research. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10(5): 1100-1123.
[25] Roy A, Bhoumik D, Sahu RK, Dwivedi J. Medicinal plants used in liver protection - a review. UK J Pharm Biosci. 2014; 2(1): 23-33.
[26] Recknagel RO, Glendejr EA, Britton RS. Free radical damage and lipid peroxidation. In: Meeks RG, Ed. Hepatotoxicology. Florida: CRC Press, 1991.
[27] Zangar RC, Benson JM, Burnett VL, Springer DL. Cytochrome P4502E1 is the primary enzyme responsible for low-dose carbon tetrachloride metabolism in human liver microsomes. Chem Biol Interact. 2000; 125(3): 233-243.
[28] Belzer NF, Ownbey M. Chromatographic comparison of Tragopogon species and hybrids. Am J Bot. 1971; 58(9): 791-802.
[29] Mojarrab M, Khan-Mohammadi A, Hosseinzadeh L, Siavash-Haghighi ZM. Antioxidant activity and safety assessment of Tragopogon buphthalmoides hydroethanolic extract: acute and subchronic toxicities. Res Pharm Sci. 2014; 9(5): 359-366.
[30] Suzuki S, Ishihara M, Segami T, Ito M. Anti-ulcer effects of antioxidants, quercetin, α-tocopherol, nifedipine and tetracycline in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1998; 78(4): 435-441.
[31] Yan XM, Joo MJ, Lim JC, Whang WK, Sim SS, Im C, Kim HR, Lee SY, Kim IK, Sohn UD. The effect of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside on indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats via induction of mucus secretion and down-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Arch Pharm Res. 2011; 34(9): 1527-1534.
[32] Jadhav VB, Thakare VN, Suralkar AA, Deshpande AD, Naik SR. Hepatoprotective activity of Luffa acutangula against CCl4 and rifampicin induced liver toxicity in rats: a biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Ind J Exp Biol. 2010; 48(4): 822-829.
[33] Vakati K, Rahman H, Eswaraiah MC, Dutta AM. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha leaves (EEAA) against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rat. Sch J App Med Sci. 2013; 1(1): 9-12.
[34] Farzaei MH, Khanavi M, Moghaddam G, Dolatshahi F, Rahimi R, Shams-Ardekani MR, Amin G, Hajimahmoodi M. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. extract based on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. J Chem. 2014; Article ID 425965.