The Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract and Physical Activity on the Levels of Transforming Growth Factor-β, Caspase 3, and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Mice Model

Document Type : Original paper


1 Doctoral Program of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sebelas Maret and Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta, Indonesia.



Background and objectives: As the global geriatric population continues to grow, degenerative-related disorders such as impaired cognitive function, keep increasing. This is partly due to the aging process, which triggers an inflammaging phenomenon, characterized by elevated levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and caspase 3 cytokines. Moringa oleifera stands out as a solution, known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging properties. This study aimed to assess the effects of M. oleifera leaves extract and physical activity on the levels of TGF-β, caspase 3, and cognitive function in geriatric mice model. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups. The C1 group served as the negative control (given standardized food and water), while C2 was the positive control (treated with D-galactose 150 mg/kg BW/day intraperitoneally for eight weeks, followed by swimming for 30 minutes 2x/week, four weeks). The T1, T2, and T3 treatment groups received D-galactose 150 mg/kg BW/day for eight weeks and M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively, along with a similar swimming session. At the end of the study, the mice were assessed for cognitive function using the Y-maze test, and then TGF-β and caspase 3 levels were measured. Results: The differences in TGF-β and caspase 3 levels between groups were statistically significant (p<0.05); however, no significant differences were observed in the cognitive function in any group (p>0.05). Conclusion: Moringa oleifera leaves extract significantly influenced TGF-β and caspase 3 levels but did not affect the cognitive function of the geriatric mice model.


Main Subjects