Document Type : Review
Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Stem Cell Medical Technology Integrated Service Unit, Cipto Mangunkusumo Central Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Indonesia Medical Education and Research Institute (IMERI), Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Curcumin has various beneficial effects on human health, but its efficacy is yet to be proven in clinical trials. Curcumin has poor bioavailability, low solubility, and rapid metabolism which become the principal reasons behind the lack of curcumin efficiency in clinical trials. This review aimed to focus on nanotechnologies to improve the bioavailability of curcumin inhalation formulations. Many studies were done to improve curcumin's bioavailability by administering through nanoparticle drug carriers. Pulmonary drug delivery has some advantages such as giving a rapid onset of action and bypassing the first hepatic metabolism. Lungs also have a large area for absorption. So far, there are various methods to produce curcumin nanoformulations that are proper, stable, and effective, and are suitable to enhance curcumin pulmonary delivery in the form of liposomes, polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles, nano suspensions, and cyclodextrin formulations. Therefore, analysis of the various methods, to conclude the best method for curcumin pulmonary delivery is needed. In conclusion, the best method to make nanocurcumin formulation is the one that gives the most advantage and lowest toxicity. Therefore the best choices for curcumin nanoformulations are curcumin nanosuspension and cyclodextrin formulated nanocurcumin/proliposomes.