Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on Sports Injuries: a Review of Patents

Document Type : Review

Authors

1 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used for its therapeutic effects since a long time ago. Most of the healing properties of rosemary might be attributed to its antinociceptive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The present review covers the certified patents and discoveries on medicinal, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic properties of rosemary to disclose its brilliant value on athletes’ health. An extended literature review was carried out in Google Patent, US Patent, and Patentscope in the field of sports injuries, inflammation, and pain. Numerous patents uncovered the importance of rosemary to apply in various healing, pharmaceutical, and medicinal fields. These discoveries might also be used as complementary methods in sports medicine for sore muscle, muscle and ligament sprain, strain, bruise, spasm, tendinitis, tendon rupture, cartilage, and joint injuries. Due to a lack of clinical trials, the use of rosemary in the clinic has been limited to a few medicinal products. Considering the human trend to use phytocompounds rather than medications based on chemical compounds, precise attention must be devoted to linking the value of rosemary from basic science to clinical usage.
 

Keywords


  • Robi K, Jakob N, Matevz K, Matjaz V. The physiology of sports injuries and repair processes. In: Hamlin M, Draper N, Kathiravel Y, Eds. Current issues in sports and exercise medicine. London: IntechOpen, 2013.
  • Rolf C. The sports injuries handbook: diagnosis and management. London: A&C Black, 2007.
  • Ozkum D, Ulas Yavuz H. Selected herbals for sports injuries. J Nat Prod. 2013; 3(1): 26–29.
  • Shedoeva A, Leavesley D, Upton Z, Fan C. Wound healing and the use of medicinal plants. Evid-Based Complement Altern Med. 2019; Article ID 2684108.
  • Yarnell E. Botanical medicine and sports injuries. Altern Complement Ther. 1997; 3(3): 183–186.
  • Maver T, Kurečič M, Smrke DM, Kleinschek KS, Maver U. Plant-derived medicines with potential use in wound treatment. In: Builders PF, Ed. Herbal medicine. London: IntechOpen, 2018.
  • Knuesel O, Weber M, Suter A. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Adv Ther. 2002; 19(5): 209–218.
  • Koll R, Buhr M, Dieter R, Pabst H, Predel HG, Petrowicz O, Giannetti B, Klingenburg S, Staiger C. Efficacy and tolerance of a comfrey root extract (Extr. Rad. Symphyti) in the treatment of ankle distorsions: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11(6): 470–477.
  • Mason L, Moore RA, Derry S, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ. Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. Br Med J. 2004; 328(7446): 1–5.
  • Altman RD, Marcussen K. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44(11): 2531–2538.
  • de Oliveira ACC, Perez AC, Merino G, Prieto JG, Alvarez AI. Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001; 130(3): 369–377.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal medicine: expanded commission E monographs. Newton: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
  • Perez-Fons L, Garzon MT, Micol V. Relationship between the antioxidant capacity and effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) polyphenols on membrane phospholipid order. J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58(1): 161–171.
  • Cui L, Kim MO, Seo JH, Kim IS, Kim NY, Lee SH, Park J, Kim J, Lee HS. Abietane diterpenoids of Rosmarinus officinalis and their diacylglycerol acyltransferase-inhibitory activity. Food Chem. 2012; 132(4): 1775–1780.
  • Zeng HH, Tu PF, Zhou K, Wang H, Wang BH, Lu JF. Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2001; 22(12): 1094–1098.
  • Hosseinzadeh H, Nourbakhsh M. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts extract on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Phytother Res. 2003; 17(8): 938–941.
  • Okamura N, Fujimoto Y, Kuwabara S, Yagi A. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of carnosic acid and carnosol in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis. J Chromatogr A. 1994; 679(2): 381–386.
  • Borrás-Linares I, Stojanović Z, Quirantes-Piné R, Arráez-Román D, Švarc-Gajić J, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Segura-Carretero A. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds. Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11): 20585–20606.
  • Duke JA. Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2nd Boca Raton: CRC press, 2002.
  • Heinrich M, Kufer J, Leonti M, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology-interdisciplinary links with the historical sciences. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107(2): 157–160.
  • Bakırel T, Bakırel U, Keleş OÜ, Ülgen SG, Yardibi H. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116(1): 64–73.
  • Rahbardar MG, Eisvand F, Rameshrad M, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. In vivo and in vitro protective effects of rosmarinic acid against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Nutr Cancer. 2022; 74(2): 747–760.
  • Benincá JP, Dalmarco JB, Pizzolatti MG, Fröde TS. Analysis of the anti-inflammatory properties of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice. Food Chem. 2011; 124(2): 468–475.
  • Rahbardar MG, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86: 441–449.
  • Ghasemzadeh MR, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis on pain, inflammation and apoptosis induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 194: 117–130.
  • Rahbardar MG, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Rosmarinic acid attenuates development and existing pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain: an evidence of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Phytomedicine. 2018; 40: 59–67.
  • Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh Effects of rosmarinic acid on nervous system disorders: an updated review. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2020; 393(10): 1779–1795.
  • Alavi MS, Fanoudi S, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. An updated review of protective effects of rosemary and its active constituents against natural and chemical toxicities. Phytother Res. 2020; 35(3): 1313–1328.
  • Machado DG, Bettio LE, Cunha MP, Capra JC, Dalmarco JB, Pizzolatti MG, Rodrigues ALS. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 33(4): 642–650.
  • Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi G, Nobakht N. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts essential oil on intact memory and scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats performing the Morris water maze task. J Med Plants. 2004; 4(12): 51–57.
  • Rahbardar MG, Hosseinzadeh H. Mechanisms of action of herbal antidepressants. In: Martin C, Hunter LA, Patel V, Preedy V, Rajendram R, Eds. The neuroscience of depression: Amesterdam: Elsevier, 2021.
  • El-Naggar SA, Abdel-Farid IB, Germoush MO, Elgebaly HA, Alm-Eldeen AA. Efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(10): 2007–2016.
  • Aguilar F, Autrup H, Barlow S, Castle L, Crebelli R, Dekant W, Engel KH, Gontard N, Gott D, Grilli S. Use of rosemary extracts as a food additive-scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food. EFSA J. 2008; 721: 1–29.
  • Woolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ. 2003; 81(1): 646–656.
  • Nakisa N, Rahbardar MG, Sokhangouei Y, Afsharmand Z. The effect of core stability-based corrective exercises on gait parameters in elite soccer players diagnosed with middle crossed syndrome. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2021; 27: 620–627.
  • Li Y, Foster W, Deasy BM, Chan Y, Prisk V, Tang Y, Cummins J, Huard J. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces the differentiation of myogenic cells into fibrotic cells in injured skeletal muscle: a key event in muscle fibrogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2004; 164(3): 1007–1019.
  • Huard J, Li Y, Fu FH. Muscle injuries and repair: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg. 2002; 84(5): 822–832.
  • Li Y, Huard J. Differentiation of muscle-derived cells into myofibroblasts in injured skeletal muscle. Am J Pathol. 2002; 161(3): 895–907.
  • Nakisa N, Rahbardar MG. Action mechanisms of antirheumatic herbal medicines. In: Toumi H, Ed. Rheumatoid arthritis. London: IntechOpen, 2021.
  • Kishen A, Gayatri Devi R, Jyothipriya A. Comparative effect of rosemary and peppermint oil on muscle spasm. Drug Invent Today. 2019; 11(5): 1124–1126.
  • Keshavarzian S, Shahgholian N. Comparison of the effect of topical application of rosemary and menthol for musculoskeletal pain in hemodialysis patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2017; 22(6): 436–441.
  • Rezaee M, Hajiaghaee R, Azizbeigi K, Rahmati-Ahmadabad S, Helalizadeh M, Akbari M, Farzanegi P, Azarbayjani MA. The effect of essential oil of rosemary on eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in non-active women. Comp Exerc Physiol. 2020; 16(2): 129–136.
  • Jur'evich KV, inventor. Ointment for topical application. Russia RU02283089. 2006 Nov 09.
  • Brigitte MMM, inventor. Manufacturing of a massage oil, useful e.g. in the preparation of a composition to relax and to act against stress, comprises three successive steps for extraction carried out by slow and gentle cooking. France FR2929849A1. 2009 Oct 16.
  • Satoh SAL, inventor; Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, assignee. Neuroprotective compositions and methods. United States US20090042980A1. 2009 Dec 2.
  • Kim DSHL, inventor. Combinations of ingredients having synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. United States US20090304827A1. 2009 Dec 10.
  • Ghorbani R, inventor. Herbal/organic composition for the management of pain. United States US8962045B2. 2015 Feb 24.
  • Xu X, Chen X, Zhu R, Fu S, Li L, Gong Y, Huang Y, inventors; Wenzhou Medical University, assignee. Composite essence oil capable of reliving muscular soreness after sports and preparation method thereof. China CN105902700. 2016 Aug 31.
  • Aung-Din R, inventor; Afgin Pharma LLC, assignee. Topical regional neuro-affective therapy with caryophyllene. Canada CA3034250A1. 2018 Feb 22.
  • Solecki B, inventor. Cannabis root extract, method of manufacture, method of use. Worldwide applications. Canada WO2019195943A1. 2019 Oct 17.
  • Scharp D, inventor; Progeneron LLC Progeneron, assignee. Topical compositions, process of manufacture and method of use. United States US20190151232A1. 2019 May 23.
  • May Lk, inventor; Endocanna Health Inc., assignee. Eric Cannabinoid formulations. Canada: CA3080468A1. 2019 May 9.
  • Skinner H. Current diagnosis and treatment in orthopedics. 5th New York: McGraw Hill/ Medical, 2013.
  • Rees JD, Maffulli N, Cook J. Management of tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2009; 37(9): 1855–1867.
  • Zwerver J, Verhagen E, Hartgens F, van den Akker-Scheek I, Diercks RL. The TOPGAME-study: effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in jumping athletes with patellar tendinopathy. Design of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010; 11(1): 1–6.
  • Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, Romero D, Lázaro-Haro C, Cugat R. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009; 17(7): 705–729.
  • Gok Metin Z, Arikan Donmez A, Izgu N, Ozdemir L, Arslan IE. Aromatherapy massage for neuropathic pain and quality of life in diabetic patients. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2017; 49(4): 379–388.
  • González-Hernádez M, Romero R, Rodríguez-Guitián M, Rigueiro A. Medicinal use of some plants in Galicia (NW Spain). International Horticultural Congress: The Future for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2004 Jan 3; Toronto, Canada.
  • Wu YT, Wu PT, Jou IM. Peritendinous elastase treatment induces tendon degeneration in rats: a potential model of tendinopathy in vivo. J Orthop Res. 2016; 34(3): 471–477.
  • Baylac S, Racine P. Inhibition of human leukocyte elastase by natural fragrant extracts of aromatic plants. Int J Aromather. 2004; 14(4): 179–182.
  • Hahn L. Inhibitors of hyaluronidase. Nature. 1952; 170(4320): 282–283.
  • Li HZ, Ren Z, Reddy N, Hou T, Zhang ZJ. In silico evaluation of antimicrobial, antihyaluronidase and bioavailability parameters of rosmarinic acid in Perilla frutescens leaf extracts. SN Appl Sci. 2020; 2(9): 1–14.
  • Giuseppe M, inventor. Water/alcohol extract of medicinal herbs and plants for the cure of tendinits, neuritis, sciatic pain, rheumatic, joint, and neck pains and stiff neck. Italy IT1252074. 1995 Feb 29.
  • Hilterman KA, inventor. Herbal composition. Worldwide applications WO2006032091A2. 2006 March 30.
  • Girsh LS, inventor; Immunopath Profile Inc., assignee. Therapeutic compositions, devices and methods for observing treated tissues. United States US20110213236A1. 2011 Sep 01.
  • Ghorbani R, inventor. Compositions and methods for treatment and management of pain. United States US20120082739A1. 2012 Apr 05.
  • Ghorbani R, inventor. Compositions and methods for treatment and management of pain. Worldwide applications United States WO2014197129A2. 2014 Dec 11.
  • Ghorbani R, inventor. Compositions and methods for treatment and management of pain. United States US9028888B2. 2015 May 12.
  • Urschel MJ, UrschelKraig TL, Moore D, inventors; JAXSEN'S LLC, assignee. Herbal ointment for musculoskeletal and joint-related conditions. United States US20170202898A1. 2017 Jul 20.
  • Zhang RK, inventor. Composition and method for joint health. Taiwan TWI643631B. 2018 Dec 11.
  • Razavi BM, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of therapeutic potentials of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its active constituent, curcumin, on inflammatory disorders, pain, and their related patents. Phytother Res. 2021; 35(12): 6489–6513.
  • Hjelle K, Solheim E, Strand T, Muri R, Brittberg M. Articular cartilage defects in 1,000 knee arthroscopies. Arthroscopy. 2002; 18(7): 730–734.
  • Belkhodja H, Meddah B, Gezici S. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba on experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation in rats. Indian J Pharm Educ Res. 2017; 51(3): 180–184.
  • de Almeida Gonçalves G, de Sá-Nakanishi AB, Comar JF, Bracht L, Dias MI, Barros L, Peralta RM, Ferreira IC, Bracht A. Water soluble compounds of Rosmarinus officinalis improve the oxidative and inflammatory states of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Food Funct. 2018; 9(4): 2328–2340.
  • Chen WP, Jin GJ, Xiong Y, Hu PF, Bao JP, Wu LD. Rosmarinic acid down‐regulates NO and PGE 2 expression via MAPK pathway in rat chondrocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2018; 22(1): 346–353.
  • Ishitobi H, Sanada Y, Kato Y, Ikuta Y, Shibata S, Yamasaki S, Lotz MK, Matsubara K, Miyaki S, Adachi N. Carnosic acid attenuates cartilage degeneration through induction of heme oxygenase-1 in human articular chondrocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 830: 1–8.
  • Liu M, Zhou X, Zhou L, Liu Z, Yuan J, Cheng J, Zhao J, Wu L, Li H, Qiu H. Carnosic acid inhibits inflammation response and joint destruction on osteoclasts, fibroblast‐like synoviocytes, and collagen‐induced arthritis rats. J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(8): 6291–6303.
  • Sanchez C, Horcajada MN, Scalfo FM, Ameye L, Offord E, Henrotin Y. Carnosol inhibits pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators of cartilage breakdown in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and mediates cross-talk between subchondral bone osteoblasts and chondrocytes. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8): 1–15.
  • Newmark T, Schulick P, inventors; New Chapter Inc, assignee. Herbal composition for reducing inflammation and methods of using same. United States US6264995. 2001 Jul 24.
  • Kutlu F, inventor. Liquid massage composition for the cure of acute chronic vertebral herina, diseases of joint, arthritis, calcification and for the regulation of blood circulation. Worldwide applications WO2005004790. 2003 Jul 14.
  • Mcwherter JF, Reiss U, inventors. Orthomolecular compositions and their use in stabilizing the extracellular matrix. United States WO2012142511A2. 2012 Oct 18.
  • Fuying M, inventor. Essential oil capable of relieving pain from caused by rheumatism. China CN103494876. 2014 Aug 01.
  • Alan Z, inventor. Joint pain treatment composition and method of use. United States US20140377370. 2014 Dec 25.
  • Berger A, inventor. Lipid formulations containing bioactive fatty acids. Worldwide applications United States WO2017091647A1. 2017 Jun 01.
  • Xia W, Wang D, Zhang T, He H, Jia Y, inventors; Hefei Jinyue Pharmaceutical CO Ltd, assignee. Medicine for treating muscle and joint pain. China CN107519465. 2017 Dec 29.
  • Vieira K, inventor; Moringo Organics Inc, assignee. Herbal nutraceutical formulation to reduce oxidative stress, viral and microbial infections, and inflammation. United States US20190209634A1. 2019 Jul 11.
  • Naughton GK, inventor. Nutraceutical products from cell conditioned medium from cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. Worldwide applications United States WO2019140267A1. 2019 Jul 18.
  • Cook-Deegan R, Niehaus A. After myriad: genetic testing in the wake of recent supreme court decisions about gene patents. Curr Genet Med Rep. 2014; 2(4): 223–241.
  • Hefferon K. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2010; 4(2): 136–152.
  • de Oliveira JR, Camargo SEA, de Oliveira LD. Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent. J Biomed Sci. 2019; 26(1): 1–22.
  • Hassani FV, Shirani K, Hosseinzadeh H. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2016; 389(9): 931–949.
  • Moore J, Megaly M, MacNeil AJ, Klentrou P, Tsiani E. Rosemary extract reduces Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activation and inhibits proliferation and survival of A549 human lung cancer cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83: 725–732.
  • Kim EJ, Chen Y, Huang JQ, Li KM, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Poon J, Chan K, Roufogalis BD, McLachlan AJ, Mo SL. Evidence-based toxicity evaluation and scheduling of Chinese herbal medicines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 146(1): 40–61.
  • Sharwan G, Jain P, Pandey R, Shukla SS. Toxicity profile of traditional herbal medicine. J Ayurvedic Herb Med. 2015; 1(3): 81–90.