Document Type : Original paper
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Physiology-Pharmacology Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Sciences and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
Department of Pathology, Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Pistachio Safety Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Background and objectives: Pistacia vera is known as a source of unique materials with therapeutic function such as antioxidant and nephron-protective activities. This study aimed to identify the biochemical and histopathological effects of Pistacia vera pericarp aqueous extract on the kidney in phenylhydrazine-induced anemia model in rats. Methods: Extraction of the P. vera pericarp was carried out by maceration technique. For animal study, the rats were studied in six groups and were exposed to phenylhydrazine for two days in the absence or presence of the extract. Renal changes were measured using biochemical and histopathological assays. The urine samples were collected in metabolic cages for total urine volume, creatinine, and 24-hour proteinuria measurement with the protein/creatinine ratio. Serum catalase, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase as oxidative stress markers were examined using ELISA test. Results: Phenylhydrazine induced kidney injuries evidenced by significant changes of urine, serum urea, creatinine levels, sodium, and potassium ions in comparison to the control group; however, the extract treatment significantly decreased kidney injuries. Administration of 80 mg/kg of the extract significantly reduced the creatinine and proteinuria in treated animals (p<0.05) but 160 mg/kg of extract helped the anemic animals to reduce protein and creatinine to normal levels. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours protein and creatinine can be used as markers of renal injuries in anemia and their regular measurement can be useful to find the risk of renal problems in anemia. These results revealed that P. vera pericarp administration may decrease renal injuries and dysfunction by reducing inflammation in the kidney.