Phytochemistry and Bioactivity of Nepeta racemosa Lam.

Document Type : Original paper


1 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

5 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Background and objectives: The genus Nepeta is used in traditional medicine for the antiseptic and astringent properties in cutaneous eruptions and snake bites. Nepeta racemosa was investigated here due to the rich source of phytochemical compounds in the Nepeta genus and the lack of any phytochemical studies. Methods: The aerial parts were extracted successively using n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol (MeOH) by maceration method, respectively. The MeOH extract was exposed to C18 Sep-Pak fractionation by a step gradient of MeOH-H2O. Further purification of the fractions by preparative reversed-phase HPLC yielded three compounds. The chemical ingredients of essential oil were determined by GC-MS. Free-radical scavenging activity of the extracts, fractions, as well as their total flavonoid and phenolics contents, were assessed using the DPPH method, AlCl3, and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents, respectively. Results: Phytochemical study of 20% and 40% solid phase extraction fractions of MeOH extract yielded one iridoid (8,9-epi-7-deoxy-loganic acid) and two phenylethanoids (forsythoside B and verbascoside), correspondingly. The 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone (31.70 %), germacrene D (7.39 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (6.47 %), were the main compounds of essentials oil. The MeOH extract demonstrated high activity in terms of antioxidant activity, total phenolics content along with total flavonoids content (0.09 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 1581.80 ± 10.28 mg/100g and 33.01 ± 0.02 mg/100g) as well as 40% SPE fraction (0.01 ± 0.00 mg/mL, 659.20 ± 40.32 mg/100g and 22.5 ± 0.37 mg/100g), respectively.  Conclusion: The presence of phenylethanoid derivatives as phenolic compounds appears to be an important antioxidant compound in Nepeta racemosa.


Main Subjects

  • İşcan G, Köse YB, Demirci B, Can Başer KH. Anticandidal activity of the essential oil of Nepeta transcaucasica Chem Biodivers. 2011; 8(11): 2144–2148.
  • Dabiri M, Sefidkon F. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nepeta racemosa from Iran. Flav Fragr J. 2003; 18(2): 157–158.
  • Kraujalis P, Venskutonis PR, Ragazinskiene O. FOODBALT. Proceedings of the 6th Baltic Conference on Food Science and Technology. 2011 May 5-6; Jegava, Latvia.
  • Formisano C, Rigano D, Senatore F. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Nepeta Chem Biodivers. 2011; 8(10): 1783–1818.
  • Javidnia K, Mehdipour A, Hemmateenejad B, Rezazadeh S, Soltani M, Khosravi A, Miri R. Nepetalactones as chemotaxonomic markers in the essential oils of Nepeta Chem Nat Compd. 2011; 47(5): 843–847.
  • Baser K, Kirimer N, Kurkcuoglu M, Demirci B. Essential oils of Nepeta species growing in Turkey. Chem Nat Compd. 2000; 36(4): 356–359.
  • Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal. 2002; 10(3): 178–182.
  • Chlopicka J, Pasko P, Gorinstein S, Jedryas A, Zagrodzki P. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of pseudocereal breads. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2012; 46(2): 548–555.
  • Abd El-Gaber AS, El Gendy ANG, Elkhateeb A, Saleh IA, El-Seedi HR. Microwave extraction of essential oil from Anastatica hierochuntica (L): comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and steam distillation. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2018; 21(4): 1003–1010.
  • Ghosh T, Zarif Morshed M, Islam N, Al Masud KN, Akter M, Islam R. In-vitro investigation of antioxidant activity of Cissus adnata in different fractions. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018; 7(2): 2625–2628.
  • Otang WM, Grierson DS, Ndip RN. Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity of two South African medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12(1): 1–7.
  • Ammor K, Bousta D, Jennan S, Bennani B, Chaqroune A, Mahjoubi F. Phytochemical screening, polyphenols content, antioxidant power, and antibacterial activity of Herniaria hirsuta from Morocco. Sci World J. 2018; Article ID 7470384.
  • Tripathi AK, Gupta A, Garg SK, Tekwani BL. In vitro β-hematin formation assays with plasma of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii and other parasite preparations: comparative inhibition with quinoline and endoperoxide antimalarials. Life Sci. 2001; 69(23): 2725–2733.
  • Afshar FH, Delazar A, Janneh O, Nazemiyeh H, Pasdaran A, Nahar L, Sarker SD. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and spicigera, Asteraceae. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2011; 21(6): 986–990.
  • Dinda B, Debnath S, Banik R. Naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. An updated review, part 4. Chem Pharm Bull. 2011; 59(7): 803–833.
  • Dinda B, Debnath S, Harigaya Y. Naturally occurring secoiridoids and bioactivity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. a review, part 2. Chem Pharm Bull. 2007; 55(5): 689–728.
  • Toth E, Toth G, Mathe I, Blunden G. Martynoside, forsythoside B, ladanein and 7a-acetoxyroyleanone from Ballota nigra Biochem Syst Ecol. 2007; 35(12): 894–897.
  • Sahpaz S, Garbacki N, Tits M, Bailleul F. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 389–392.
  • Noiarsa P, Ruchirawat S, Kanchanapoom T. Acanmontanoside, a new phenylethanoid diglycoside from Acanthus montanus. Molecules. 2010; 15(12): 8967–8972.
  • Kim SR, Kim YC. Neuroprotective phenylpropanoid esters of rhamnose isolated from roots of Scrophularia buergeriana. Phytochemistry. 2000; 54(5): 503–509.
  • Santos JD, Lanza AMD, Fernández L, Rumbero A. Isoangoroside C, a phenylpropanoid glycoside from Scrophularia scorodonia Z Naturforsch C. 2000; 55(5-6): 333–336.
  • Sousa EO, Miranda CM, Nobre CB, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Costa JG. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Lantana camara and Lantana montevidensis Ind Crops Prod. 2015; 70: 7–15.
  • Abdille MH, Singh R, Jayaprakasha G, Jena B. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from Dillenia indica Food Chem. 2005; 90(4): 891–896.
  • Asgharian P, Delazar A, Lotfipour F, Asnaashari S. Bioactive properties of Eremostachys macrophylla & Auch. rhizomes growing in Iran. Pharm Sci. 2017; 23(3): 238–243.
  • Juan MY, Chou CC. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715. Food Microbiol. 2010; 27(5): 586–591.
  • Sharififar F, Dehghn-Nudeh G, Mirtajaldini M. Major flavonoids with antioxidant activity from Teucrium polium Food Chem. 2009; 112(4): 885–888.
  • Sajjadi SE. Analysis of the essential oil of Nepeta sintenisii from Iran. Daru J Pharm Sci. 2005; 13(2): 61–64.
  • Sharma A, Cannoo DS. Phytochemical composition of essential oils isolated from different species of genus Nepeta of Labiatae family: a review. Pharmacophore. 2013; 4(6): 181–211.
  • Rustaiyan A, Khosravi M, Larijany K, Masoudi S. Compostion of the essential oil of Nepeta racemosa from Iran. J Essen Oil Res. 2000; 12(2): 151–152.
  • Baser K, Demircakmak B, Altintas A, Duman H. Composition of the essential oils of Nepeta cadmea J Essent Oil Res. 1998; 10(3): 327–328.
  • Rustaiyan A, Komeilizadeh H, Monfared A, Nadji K, Masoudi S, Yari M. Volatile constituents of Nepeta denudata and N. cephalotes Boiss. from Iran. J Essent Oil Res. 2000; 12(4): 459–461.
  • Thappa R, Agarwal S, Srivastava T, Kapahi B. Essential oils of four Himalayan Nepeta J Essent Oil Res. 2001; 13(3): 189–191.
  • Velasco‐Negueruela A, Perez‐Alonso MJ, Rodriquez AB. Essential oil analysis of Nepeta teydea & Berth. Flav Fragr J. 1989; 4(4): 197–199.