Effect of Roasting Process on Sesamin and Sesamol Contents of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) from Different Parts of Iran

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran.

5 Research & Development Department, Research & Production Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

6 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds have been a well-known oil crop in the world for many centuries. Lignans are functionally important compartments of sesame. Sesamin and sesamol are the main sesame lignans, which have recently shown various activities with health benefits, like anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The aim of this study was determination of sesamin and sesamol concentration in sesame seeds from three different regions of Iran with diverse climatic conditions (Dezful, Ardakan and Neka). In addition, the effect of roasting process on sesamin and sesamol content were investigated.
Methods: Analysis of sesamin and sesamol was performed using the mobile phase water: methanol (70:30) on a reversed phase ACE C18 with flow rate of 0.6 mL/min and UV detection at 290 nm.
Results: HPLC analysis revealed that the highest content of sesamin (1.156±0.002 mg/g of seeds) and sesamol (2.393±0.002 mg/g of seeds) were observed in roasted Dezful seeds samples and hulled roasted Dezful sesame seeds, respectively. The amount of sesamin and sesamol in roasted seeds was higher than unroasted samples. Conclusion: The present study showed that the roasting process and hot semi-arid climate increase the content of lignans in sesame seeds. Consuming sesame seeds with such characteristics will improve dietary lignan intake and has nutritive value. Moreover, sesame seed characterized by the highest amount of sesamin and sesamol is more strongly suggested for achieving biological properties of these components.

 

Keywords


[1] Adlercreutz H. Lignans and human health. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2007; 44(5-6): 483-525.

[2] Were BA, Onkware AO, Gudu S, Welander M, Carlsson AS. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in East African sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions evaluated over 3 years. Field Crops Res. 2006; 97(2-3): 254-260.

[3] Chang LW, Yen WJ, Huang SC, Duh PD. Antioxidant activity of sesame coat. Food Chem. 2002; 78(3): 347-354.

[4] Hassan MAM. Studies on Egyption sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and its products. Effect of roasting process on gross chemical composition, functional properties, antioxidative components and some minerals of defatted sesame seeds meal. World J Dairy Food Sci. 2013; 8(1): 51-57.

[5] Miur AD. Flax lignans: new opportunities for functional foods. Food Sci Technol Bull. 2010; 6(6): 61-79.

[6] Peterson J, Dwyer J, Adlercreutz H, Scalbert A, Jacques P, McCullough ML. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Nutr Rev. 2010; 68(10): 571-603.

[7] Hirata F, Fujita k, Ishikura Y, Hosoda K. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sesame lignan in humans. Atherosclerosis. 1996; 122(1): 135-136.

[8] Mohammad N, Alyemeni A, Basahy Y, Sher H. Physico-chemical analysis and mineral composition of some sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia. J Med Plants Res. 2011; 5(2): 270-274.

[9] Bedigian D. History and lore of sesame in southwest Asia. Econ Bot. 2004; 58(3): 329-353.

[10] Onsaard E, Pomsamud P, Audtum P. Functional properties of sesame protein concentrates from sesame meal. Asian J Food Ag-Ind. 2010; 3(4): 420-431.

[11] Quasem JM, Mazahreh AS, Abu-Alruz K. Development of vegetable based milk from decorticated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Am J Appl Sci. 2009; 6(5): 888-896.

[12] Onsaard E. Sesame proteins. Int Food Res J. 2012; 19(4): 1287-1295.

[13] Ghafoorunissa S, Hemalatha M, Vishnuvardhana R. Sesame lignans enhance the antioxidant activity of vitamin E in lipid peroxidation systems. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004; 262(1-2): 195-202.

[14] Khalesi S, Paukste E, Nikbakht E, Khosravi-Boroujeni H. Sesame fractions and lipid profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2016; 115(5): 764-773.

[15] Liu CT, Liu MY. Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPKs activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy. J Nutr Biochem. 2017; 42: 108-116.

[16] Durazzo A, Zaccaria M, Polito A, Maiani G, Carcea M. Lignan content in cereals, buckwheat and derived foods. Foods. 2013; 2(1): 53-63.

[17] Chung B, Lee JJ, Kim JD, Jeoung D, Lee H, Choe J, Ha KS, Kwon YG, Kim YM. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 391(1): 254-260.

[18] Kamal-Eldin A, Moazzami A, Washi S. Sesame seed lignans: potent physiological modulators and possible ingredients in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Recent Patents Food Nutr Agric. 2011; 3(1): 17-29.

[19] Chen X, Ying X, Chen L, Zhang W, Zhang Y. Protective effects of sesamin on liver fibrosis through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2015; 37(5): 465-472.

[20]  Majdalawieh AF, Massri M, Nasrallah GK. A comprehensive review on the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of sesamin, a lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.). Eur J Pharmacol. 2017; 815: 512-521

[21] Kong X, Ma MZ, Zhang Y, Weng MZ, Gong W, Guo LQ, Zhang JX, Wang GD, Su Q, Quan ZW, Yang JR. Differentiation therapy: sesamin as an effective agent in targeting cancer stem-like side population cells of human gallbladder carcinoma. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14: 1-11.

[22] Ma JQ, Ding J, Zhang L, Liu CM. Hepatoprotective properties of sesamin against CCl4 induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in mice via JNK pathway. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014; 64: 41-48.

[23] Hou RC, Huang HM, Tzen JT, Jeng KC. Protective effects of sesamin and sesamolin on hypoxic neuronal and PC12 cells. J Neurosci Res. 2003; 74(1): 123-133.

[24] Sadeghi N, Oveisi MR, Hajimahmoodi M, Jannat B, Mazaheri M, Mansouri S. The content of sesamol in Iranian seeds. Iran J Pharm Res. 2009; 8(2): 101-105.

[25] Fukuda Y, Nagata M, Osawa T, Namiki M. Contribution of lignan analogues to antioxidative activity of refined unroasted sesame seed oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1986; 63(8): 1027-1031.

[26] Hemalatha S, Ghafoorunissa S.  Lignans and tocopherols in Indian sesame cultivars. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2004; 81: 467-470.

[27] Wang L, Zhang Y, Li P, Wang X, Zhang W, Wei W, Zhang X. HPLC analysis of seed sesamin and sesamolin variation in a sesame germplasm collection in China. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2012; 89(6): 1011-1020.

[28] The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, Human Medicines Evaluation Unit. ICH Q2B: Validation of analytical procedures. London: The European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. Human medicines evaluation unit, 1996.

[29] Biglar M, Moghaddam G, Sadeghi N,  Oveisi MR,  Jannat B,  Kaboli Z, Hassani S, Hajimahmoodi M. Profiling of major fatty acids in different raw and roasted sesame seeds cultivars. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012; 11(24): 6619-6623.

[30] Jannat B, Oveisi MR, Sadeghi N, Hajimahmoodi M, Behzad M, Choopankari E, Behfar AA. Effect of roasting temperature and time on healthy nutraceuticals of antioxidants and total phenolic content in Iranian sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.). Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2012; 7(1): 97-102.

[31] Yoshida H, Takagi S. Effects of seed roasting temperature and time on the quality characteristics of sesame oil. J Sci Food Agric. 1997; 75(1): 19-26.

[32] Chellamutu  M, Sekar P, Subramanian S. Evaluation of sesame (Sesamum indicum  L.) germplasm collection of Tamil Nadu for α-linolenic acid, sesamin and sesamol content. Afr J Biotechnol. 2017; 16(23): 1308-1313.

[33] Shahidi F, Amarowicz R, Abou-Gharbia HA, Shehata AAY. Endogenous antioxidants and stability of sesame oil as affected by processing and storage. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1997; 74(2): 143-148.

[34] Fukuda Y, Isobe M, Nagata M, Osawa T, Namiki M. Acidic transformation of sesamolin, the sesame  oil constituent, into an antioxidant bisepoxylignan, sesaminol. Hetrocycles. 1986; 24(4): 923-926.

[35] Jeong SM, Kim SY, Kim DR, Nam KC, Ahn DU, Lee SC. Effects of seed roasting conditions on the antioxidant activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004; 69(5): 377-381.

[36] Namiki M. The chemistry and physiological functions of sesame. Food Rev Int. 1995; 11(2): 281-329.

[37] Abou-Gharbia HA, Shehata AAY, Shaidi F. Effects of processing on oxidative stability and lipid classes of sesame oil. Food Res Int. 2000; 33(5): 331-340.

[38] Mukta N, Neeta MP. A review on sesame- an ethno medicinally significant oil crop. Int J Life Sci Pharm Res. 2017; 7(2): 58-63.