Cholinesterase Inhibitory, Anti-oxidant and Anti-tyrosinase Activities of Three Iranian Species of Dracocephalum

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Departments of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Departments of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Dracocephalum species are mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine for enhancement of cognitive performance. In the present study, the acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory activities as well as the anti-oxidant and anti-tyrosinase effects of three Iranian Dracocephalum species (D. kotschyi, D. multicaule, D. polychaetum was analyzed). Methods: The extractions were performed stepwise with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAC), methanol (MeOH) and water. AChE and BChE inhibitory properties were measured by a microplate assay. Total phenolic content of all extracts were also evaluated and anti-oxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH, FRAP assays. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity was measured using the modified dopachrome method with L-DOPA as the substrate. Results: The results showed that the EtOAc extract of D. multicaule and MeOH extract of D. kotschyi were the most active anti-oxidant and anti-tyrosinase extracts which showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. Dracocephalum multicaule demonstrated the most considerable activity in AChE inhibition and D. polychaetum the highest activity in BChE inhibition. The aqueous extract of D. multicaule inhibited both AChE and BChE. Conclusion: Dracocephalum multicaule can be suggested as a proper natural candidate for improvement of cognitive disorders.

Keywords


[1] Rechinger KH. Flora Iranica. Vienna: Verlag des Naturhistorischen, 1986.

[2] Mozaffarian V. A dictionary of Iranian plant names. Tehran: Farhang-e-Moaser, 1996.

[3] Shi QQ, Dang J, Wen HX, Yuan X, Tao YD, Wang QL. Anti-hepatitis, antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds of Dracocephalum heterophyllum extracts. Bot Stud. 2016; 57: 16-25.

[4] Zeng Q, Jin HZ, Qin JJ, Fu JJ, Hu XX, Liu JH, Yan L, Chen M, Zhang WD. Chemical constituents of plants from the genues Dracocephalum. Chem Bio Divers. 2010; 7(8): 1911-1929.

[5] Mut-Salud N, Ávarez PJ, Garrido JM, Carrasco E, Aránega A, Rodríguez-Serrano F. Antioxidant intake and antitumor therapy: toward nutritional recommendations for optimal results. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; Article ID 6719534.

[6] Samsam- Shariat SH. Collection of medicinal herbs. Esfahan: Mani publications, 2004.

[7] Husain M, Mehta MA. Cognitive enhancement by drugs in health and disease. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011; 15(1): 28-36.

[8] Wu B. Tyrosinase inhibitors from terrestrial and marine resources. Curr Top Med Chem. 2014; 14(12): 1425-1449.

[9] Uchida R, Ishikawa S, Tomoda H. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity and melanine pigmentation by 2-hydroxytyrosol. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 2014; 4(2): 141-145.

[10] Sarkar R, Arora P, Garg KV. Cosmeceuticals for hyperpigmentation: what is available? J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2013; 6(1): 4-11.

[11] Orazio JD, Jarrett S, Amaro-Ortiz A, Scott T. UV Radiation and the skin. Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(6): 12222-12248.

[12] Brenner M, Hearing VJ. Modifying skin pigmentation-approaches through intrinsic biochemistry and exogenous agents. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2008; 5(2): 189-199.

[13] Korać RR, Khambholja KM. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011; 5(10): 164-173.

[14] Juzeniene A, Moan J. Beneficial effects of UV radiation other than via vitamin D production. Dermato Endocrinol. 2012; 4(2): 109-117.

[15] Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JGJr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA. Final report of the safety assessment of kojic acid as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol. 2010; 29(6): 2447-2473.

[16] Slinkard K, Singleton VL. Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic. 1977; 28: 49-55.

[17] Sarikurkcu C. Antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from endemic cyclamen mirabile Hildebr tubers and leaves. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011; 10(13): 831-839.

[18] Aktumsek A, Zengin G, Guler GO, Cakmak YS, Duran A. Antioxidant potentials and anticholinesterase activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of three endemic Centaurea L. species. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 56(23): 290-296.

[19] Erdogan OI, Senol FS, Gulpinar AR, Sekeroglu N, Kartal M, Sener B. Neuroprotective potential of some terebinth coffee brands and the unprocessed fruits of Pistacia terebinthus L. and their fatty and essential oil analyses. Food Chem. 2012; 130(4): 882-888.

[20] Adhami HR, Fitz V, Lubich A, Kaehlig H, Zehl M, Krenn L. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from galbanum, the oleo gum-resin of Ferula gummosa Boiss. Phytochem Lett. 2014; 10: 32-87.

[21] Kamali M, Khosroyar S, Kamali H, ahmadzadeh-Sani T, Mohammadi A. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant ctivities of Dracocephalum kotschyi and determination of its luteolin content. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016; 6(4): 425- 433.

[22] Pouraboli S, Nazari NS, Sharififar F, Jafari M. Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antilipid peroxidative activities of Dracocephalum polychaetum shoot extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats: in vivo and in vitro studies. Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(2): 272-278.

[23] Lim TY, Lim YY, Yule CM. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tyrosinase activities of four Macaranga species. Food Chem. 2009; 114(2): 594-599.

[24] Zhao H, Chen W, Lu J, Zhao M. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of commercial beers. Food Chem. 2010; 58(19): 1150-1158.

[25] Xu Y, Stokes AH, Freeman WM, Kumer SC, Vogt BA, Vrana KE. Tyrosinase mRNA is expressed in human substantia nigra. Mol Brain Res. 1997; 45(1): 159-162.

[26] Choi HK, Lim YS, Kim YS, Park SY, Lee CH, Hwang KW, Kwon DY. Free-radical-scavenging and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of Cheong guk jang samples fermented for various times. Food Chem. 2008; 106(2): 564-568.

[27] Lee CJ, Chen LG, Chang TL, Ke WM, Lo YF, Wang CC. The correlation between skin-care effects and phytochemical contents in Lamiaceae plants. Food Chem. 2011; 124(3): 833-841.

[28] Elzaawely AA, Xuan TD, Tawata S. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rumex japonicus Houtt aerial parts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28(12): 2225-2230.

[29] Khole S, Chatterjee S, Variyar P, Sharma A, Devasagayam TPA, Ghaskadbi S. Bioactive constituents of germinated fenugreek seeds with strong antioxidant potential. J Funct Foods. 2014; 6(1): 270-279.

[30] Mandegary A, Soodi M, Sharififar F, Ahmadi S. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of Tripleurospermum disciforme and Dracocephalum multicaule. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2014; 5(3): 162-166.