Wallflower (Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz) from Past to Future

Document Type: Review


1 Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Phytopharmaceutical Technology and Traditional Medicine Incubator, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

4 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

5 Colorectal Research Center, Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

6 Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


Wallflower (Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz) is a common medicinal plant in Persian medicine and nowadays some traditional products from wallflower are consumed on global markets. The aim of the present study was to study the phytochemical constituents of wallflower and discuss safety evaluations related to the traditional wallflower preparations. Major Persian scholars (e.g. Avicenna) books, Persian manuscripts (e.g. Makhzan-al-advia) and Arabic medical manuscripts (e.g Alshamel-fi alsanaat altebya) of the medieval Islamic era as well as current search engines including Pubmed, Scopus, Siencedirect, and Google Scholar were included in the study from 1700 up to 2018 A.D. In traditional medicine manuscripts, various topical and oral dosage forms of wallflower were administered in low doses. After renaissance, phytochemical investigations reported cardiac steroids in wallflower and it might be the reason that next medical investigations on the herb have been interrupted. According to in vivo studies, topical indications of cardiac steroids in doses lower than their inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) should be safe and effective in some cutaneous disorders. Wallflower is reported to have several different classes of compounds including: 11 types of cardenolides (such as strophanthidin, bipindogenin, uzarigenin, cannogenol and digitoxygenin derivatives), two flavonoids, a cyanidin and two glucosinolates. Therefore, for safety guarantee, wallflower products require dose adjustment based on IC50 and probable cardenolide soluble content in that dosage forms.


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