Cytotoxic Activity of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Leaves Essential Oil in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Document Type: Short communication

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Juniperus excelsa is a flowering plant that has been applied as traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders such as dysmenorrhea, bronchitis and colds, jaundice and tuberculosis. The aims of the present study were analyzing J. excelsa essential oil and investigation of its cytotoxic activity on three breast cancer cell lines.  Methods:  Juniperus excelsa leaves were collected from Dena mountains, located in the south-west of Iran. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Cytotoxic activity was evaluated using MTT assay.   Results: Forty-one components, related to 99.83% of the total oil, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons represented the major components of the volatile oil while α-pinene (73.27%) was the major component. The essential oil showed significant cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (IC50=0.084 µg/mL), MDA-MB-231 (IC50=0.090 µg/mL) and T-47D (IC50=0.124 µg/mL).  Conclusion: The analysis of J. excelsa oil revealed α-pinene and cedrol as the main compounds of the volatile oil that could justifiy its remarkable cytotoxic effect against the tested cell lines.

Keywords


[1] Kerfoot O, Lavranos JJ. Studies on the flora of Arabia. X. Juniperus phoenicea L. and J. excelsa M. Bieb. Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh. 1984; 41(1): 483-498.

[2] Pirani A, Moazzeni H, Mirinejad S, Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M. Ethnobotany of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. (Cupressaceae) in Iran. Ethnot Res Appl. 2011; 9: 335-341.

[3] Noroozi J, Akhani H, Breckle SW. Biodiversity and phytogeography of the alpine flora of Iran. Biodivers Conserv. 2008; 17(3): 493-521.

[4] Azzimonti B, Cochis A, Beyrouthy ME, Iriti M, Uberti F, Sorrentino R, Landini MM, Rimondini L, Varoni EM. Essential oil from berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb displays similar antibacterial activity to chlorhexidine but higher cytocompatibility with human oral primary cells. Molecules. 2015; 20(5): 9344-9357.

[5] Fadli M, Chevalier J, Saad A, Mezrioui NE, Hassani L, Pages JM. Essential oils from Moroccan plants as potential chemosensitisers restoring antibiotic activity in resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011; 38(4): 325-330.

[6] Khoury M, El Beyrouthy M, Ouaini N, Iriti M, Eparvier V, Stien D. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon. Chem Biodivers. 2014; 11(5): 825-830.

[7] Khan M, Khan A, Rehman N, Zafar MA, Hazrat A, Gilani AH. Cardiovascular effects of Juniperus excelsa are mediated through multiple pathways. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012; 34(3): 209-216.

[8] Khan M, Khan AU, Gilani AH. Pharmacological explanation for the medicinal use of Juniperus excelsa in hyperactive gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. J Nat Med. 2012; 66(2): 292-301.

[9] El Mahi S. Juniper islands and plant diversity, a case study with remote and GIS in Karaj, Iran. M.Sc. thesis. International Institute for Geo-Information Sciences and Earth Observation, Enscheda, Netherlands, 2003.

[10] Fisher M, Gardner AS. The status and ecology of a Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos woodland in the northern mountains of Oman. Vegetatio. 1995; 119(1): 33-51.

[11] Lesjak MM, Beara IN, Orčić DZ, Anačkov GT, Balog KJ, Francišković MM, Mimica-Dukić NM. Juniperus sibirica Burgsdorf. as a novel source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Food Chem. 2011; 124(3): 850-856.

[12] Mossa JS, Muhammad I, El-Feraly FS, Hufford CD. 3β, 12-Dihydroxyabieta-8, 11, 13-triene-1-one and other constituents from Juniperus excelsa leaves. Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(8): 2789-2792.

[13] Tumen I, Süntar I, Keleş H, Küpeli Akkol E. A therapeutic approach for wound healing by using essential oils of Cupressus and Juniperus species growing in Turkey. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; Article ID 728281.

[14] Lima FJ, Brito TS, Freire WB, Costa RC, Linhares MI, Sousa FC, Lahlou S, Leal-Cardoso JH, Santos AA, Magalhães PJ. The essential oil of Eucalyptus tereticornis, and its constituents α-and β-pinene, potentiate acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat trachea. Fitoterapia. 2010; 81(6): 649-655.

[15]  Aydin E, Türkez H, Geyikoğlu F. Antioxidative, anticancer and genotoxic properties of α-pinene on N2 a neuroblastoma cells. Biologia. 2013; 68(5): 1004-1009.

[16] Sobral MV, Xavier AL, Lima TC, de Sousa DP. Antitumor activity of monoterpenes found in essential oils. Sci World J. 2014; Article ID 953451.

[17] Sela F, Karapandzova M, Stefkov G, Cvetkovikj I, Kulevanova S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb.(Cupressaceae) grown in R. Macedonia. Pharmacogn Res. 2015; 7(1): 74-80.

[18] Esmaeili S, Hamzeloo-Moghadam M, Ghaffari S, Mosaddegh M. Cytotoxic activity screening of some medicinal plants from south of Iran. Res J Pharmacogn. 2014; 1(4): 19-25.

[19] Saab AM, Guerrini A, Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Zeino M, Arend J, Gambari R, Bernardi F, Efferth T. Phytochemical analysis and cyto-toxicity towards multidrug-resistant leukemia cells of essential oils derived from Lebanese medicinal plants. Planta Med. 2012; 78(18): 1927-1931.

[20] Topçu G, Gören AC, Bilsel G, Bilsel M, Çakmak O, Schilling J, Kingston DG. Cytotoxic activity and essential oil composition of leaves and berries of Juniperus excelsa. Pharm Biol. 2005; 43(2): 125-128.

[21] Eftekhari M, Ardekani MS, Amini M, Akbarzadeh T, Safavi M, Karimpour E, Khanavi M. Biological activities of the essential oil and total extract of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2017; 8(2): 82-86.

[22] Mishra D, Joshi S, Bisht G, Pilkhwal S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Solidago canadensis Linn. root essential oil. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2010; 1(3): 187-190.

[23] Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4th ed. Carol stream: Allured publishing corporation, 2007.

[24] Khanavi M, Ghasemian L, Motlagh EH, Hadjiakhoondi A, Shafiee A. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Marrubium parviflorum Fisch. & CA Mey. and Marrubium vulgare L. from Iran. Flavour Frag J. 2005; 20(3): 324-326.

[25] Akbarzadeh T, Noushini S, Taban S, Mahdavi M, Khoshneviszadeh M, Saeedi M, Emami S, Eghtedari M, Sarrafi Y, Khoshneviszadeh M, Safavi M, Divsalar K, Moshafi MH, Asadipour A, Sabourian R, Edraki N, Firouzi O, Miri R, Shafiee A, Foroumadi A. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel poly-substituted imidazo 2, 1-cc 1, 2, 4 triazin-6-amines. Mol Divers. 2015; 19(2): 273-281.

[26] Shanjani PS, Mirza M, Calagari M, Adams RP. Effects drying and harvest season on the essential oil composition from foliage and berries of Juniperus excelsa. Ind Crops Prod. 2010; 32(2): 83-87.

[27] Sadeghi-aliabadi H, Emami A, Sadeghi B, Jafarian A. In vitro cytotoxicity of two subspecies of Juniperus excelsa on cancer cells. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2009; 11(4): 250-253.

[28] Boris R, Elena T, Gerhard B, Leopold J. Cytotoxic properties of selected sesquiterpene alcohols on human cervix carcinoma cell lines. J Essent Oil Bear Pl. 2011; 14(3): 316-319.