Evaluation of Nephroprotective and Antidiabetic Effects of Gundelia tournefortii Aqueous Extract on Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Mice

Document Type: Original paper


1 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Research Center of Oils and Fats (RCOF), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.


Background and objectives: Due to the rapid growth of global interest in use of ethno medicinal plants, their effects and safety assessment have become substantial. Gundelia tournefortii has been used as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agent. In the present study, nephrprotective and antidiabetic properties of Gundelia tournefortii aqueous extract (GTAE) on diabetic mice has been assessed. Methods: Seventy mice were used and diabetes was induced by administration of 150 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally in 60 mature male mice and they were randomly divided into 6 groups. Also one group (10 mice) was considered as the negative control group which received normal saline. The treatment groups received glibenclamide 10 mg/kg (G10) and 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of GTAE through gavage for 20 days. Also, one group was considered as the non-diabetic control. On the last day, levels of blood glucose, urea and creatinine were measured in serum. After tissue processing, 5 μm sections of the kidneys were prepared and were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and used for stereological analysis. Results: GTAE at all doses and G10 significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the raised levels of blood glucose, creatinine and urea as compared to the untreated diabetic mice. Multipledoses of GTAE and G10 significantly (p≤0.05) decreased the volume and length of renal structures, compared to the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, GTAE groups can regulate the levels of biochemical parameters and inhibit kidney damages in alloxan induced diabetic mice. It appears that GTAE can be suggested for treatment of diabetes as an anti-diabetic supplement or drug.


[1] Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(7): 1335-1343.

[2] Le-Devehat C, Khodabandehlou T, Vimeux M. Impaired hemorheological properties in diabetic patients with lower limb arterial ischaemia. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2001; 25(2): 43-48.

[3] Musabayane CT. The effects of medicinal plants on renal function and blood pressure in diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2012; 23(8): 462-468.

[4] Hostetter TH, Troy JL, Brenner BM. Glomerular hemodynamic in experimental diabetes. Kidney Int. 1981; 19(3): 410-415.

[5] Mogensen CE, Anderson MJF. Increased kidney size and glomerular filtration rate in untreated juvenile diabetes: normalization by insulin-treatment. Diabetologia. 1975; 11(3): 221-224.

[6] Christiansen JS, Gammelgaard J, Tronier B, Svendsen PA, Parving HH. Kidney function and size in diabetes before and during initial insulin treatment. Kidney Int. 1982; 21(5): 683-688.

[7] Wiseman MJ, Saunders AJ, Keen H, Viberti GC. Effect of blood glucose control on      increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney size in insulin dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med. 1985; 312(10): 617-621.

[8] Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Larijani B, Abdollahi M. A review on the antioxidants in the management of diabetes and its complications. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005; 59(7): 365-373.

[9] Moradi R, Hajialiani M, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Faizi S, Zoalfaghari M, Marabi A. Study a plant extract as an antibacterial agent. Int J Current Med Pharm Res. 2017; 3(2): 1360-1362.

[10] Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Najafi F, Tahvilian R. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Allium saralicum R.M. Fritschon CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2017; 16(3): 227-238.

[11] Zangeneh MM, Alahmoradi M, Shamohammadi M, Khazaei M, Amiri-Paryan A, Akbari A, Tahvilian R, Zangeneh A, Moradi R. Effect of Citrus aurantifulia seed extract cream on cutaneous wound healing in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Online J Vet Res. 2017; 21(11): 751-755.

[12] Najafi F, Tahvilian R, Farhadi H, Zangeneh A, Souri N, Poorshamohammad C, Hosseini MS, Moradi R, Zangeneh MM. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana aqueous extract cream on wound healing in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Online J Vet Res. 2017; 21(11): 700-706.

[13] Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MHH. Hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 58(3): 149-155.

[14] Pushparaj P, Tan CH, Tan BKH. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(1): 69-76.

[15] WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes mellitus. Technical report series 646, second report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1981.

[16] Jamshidzadeh A, Fereidooni F, Salehi Z, Niknahad H. Hepatoprotective activity of Gundelia tourenfortii. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 101(1-3): 233-237.

[17] Coruh N, Sagdicoglucelep AG, Ozgokce F, Iscan M. Antioxidant capacities of Gundelia tournefortii L. extracts and inhibition on glutathione-s-transferase activity. Food Chem. 2007; 100(3): 1249-1253.

[18] Sharaf KH, Ali JS. Hypolipemic effect of Kuub (Gundelia tournefotii A.) oil and clofibrate on lipid profile of atherosclerotic rats. Vet Arhive. 2004; 74(5): 359-369.

[19] Hagh-Nazari L, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zamgeneh A, Tahvilin R, Moradi R. Stereological study of kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice treated with ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana (bitter fraction). Comp Clin Pathol. 2017; 26(2): 455-463.

[20] Najafi F, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Hagh-Nazari L. Antidiabtic and hepatoprotective effects of bitter fraction of Stevia rebaudiana alcoholic extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male mice. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2017; 16(6): 493-504.

[21] Braendgaard H, Gundersen HJ. The impact of recent stereological advances on quantitative studies of the nervous system. J Neurosci Methods. 1986; 18(1-2): 39-78.

[22] Gundersen HJ, Bendtsen TF, Korbo L, Marcussen N, Moller A, Nielsen K, Nyengaard JR, Pakkenberg B, Sorensen FB, Vesterby A, West MJ. Some new, simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Acta Path Micro Immun Scand. 1992; 96(5): 379-394.

[23] Nyengaard JR. Stereologic methods and their application in kidney research. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10(5): 1100-1123.

[24] Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Stereological tools in biomedical research. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2003; 75(4): 469-486.

[25] Amiri MS, Joharchi MR, Taghavizadehyazdi ME. Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of Mashhad, Iran. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014; 13(1): 157-162.

[26] Foroughi A, Zangeneh MM, Kazemi N, Zangeneh A. An in vitro study on antimicrobial properties of Allium noeanumreut ex regel: an ethnomedicinal plant. Iran J Public Health. 2016; 45(2): 32.

[27] Zangeneh MM, Poyanmehr M, Najafi F, Zangeneh A, Moradi R, Tahvilian R, Haghnazari L. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC No. 21332). Int J Res Pharm Nano Sci. 2016; 5(6): 320-325.

[28] Zangeneh MM, Najafi F, Tahvilian R, Salmani S, Haghnazari L, Zangeneh A, Moradi R. Ethnomedicinal plants: in vitroantibacterial effects of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana. Int J Ayu Pharm Chem. 2017; 6(1): 251-259.

[29] Faramarzi E, Goorani S, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Amiri-Paryan A, Almasi M, Najafi F, Tahvilian R. Effect of Punica granatum on wound healing in male Sprague Dawley rats. Online J Vet Res. 2017; 21(9): 543-548.

[30] Moradi R, Hajialiani M, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Tahvilian R, Hidaryan H, Rezaeeas N, Kohneshin A. Antibacterial properties of an Iranian ethnomedicinal plant. Int J Ayu Pharm Chem. 2017; 6(3): 128-137.

[31] Bahrami E, Khedri MR, Zangeneh MM, Abiari M, Zangeneh A, Amiri-Paryan A, Tahvilian R, Moradi R. Effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract on blood fasting glucose and hematological parameters in diabetic male BALB/c mice. Online J Vet Res. 2017; 21(12): 784-793.

[32] Shojaii A, Hashem-Dabaghian F, Goushegir A, Abdollahi-Fard M. Antidiabetic plants of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 2011; 49(10): 637-642.

[33] Saini R, Patil SM. Anti-diabetic activity of roots of Quercusin fectoria Olivier in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2012; 3(4): 1318-1321.

[34] Hamdan II, Afifi FU. Studies on the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic activities of some medicinal plants used in treatment of diabetes in Jordanian traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 93(1): 117-121.

[35] Stackhouse S, Miller PL, Park SK, Meyer TW. Reversal of glomerular hyperfiltration and renal hypertrophy by blood glucose normalization in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 1990; 39(8): 989-995.

[36] Chaiyasut C, Kusirisin W, Lailerd N, Lerttrakarnnon P, Suttajit M, Srichairatanakool S. Effects of phenolic compounds of fermented Thai indigenous plants on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2011; Article ID 749307.

[37] De Rubertis FR, Craven PA. Activation of protein kinase c in glomerular cells in diabetes: mechanisms and potential links to the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulopathy. Diabetes. 1994; 43(1): 1-8.

[38] Sharma K, Ziyadeh FN. Hyperglycemia and diabetic kidney disease: the case for transforming growth factor-  as a key mediator. Diabetes. 1995; 44(10): 1139-1146.

[39] Haghi G, Hatami A, Arshi R. Distribution of caffeic acid derivatives in Gundelia tournefortii L. Food Chem. 2011; 124(3): 1029-1035.

[40] Losso JN, Shahidi F, Bagchi D. Anti-angiogenic functional and medicinal foods. London: CRC Press, 2007.