Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.
Rhus coriaria L. is known as Sumac. R. coriaria extracts are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological reputations in the South-Eastern Anatolia, Mediterranean area and Western Asia especially in Iran. Regarding the new multi-functional properties of R. coriaria and the related valuable ongoing reports, we were prompted to review the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this species. The data were collected using scientific journals, books and websites such as Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar. For a long time, R. coriaria has been used as a spice by grinding the dried fruits with salt, and it has also been widely used as a medicinal herb in traditional medicine for its atheroprotective effect and its ability to treat eye diseases, wounds, bowel disorders, ring worms and skin disorders. In addition, R. coriaria has recently shown to have hepatoprotective, anti-ischemic, antimicrobial as well as hypoglycemic and hyperlipidemic effects. Volatile substances, flavonoids, tannins and xanthones have been reported from this plant. Due to its easy collection and the remarkable biological activities, R. coriaria has been used both as food and medicine in some parts of the world especially Iran. This article presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of R. coriaria.