The effect of extraction method on the major constituents and biological effects of Trachyspermum ammi L. fruits

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Natural and Traditional Products Division, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.

3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6 Department of Biotechnology, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

7 Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

8 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

9 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Variety of extraction methods coupled with definite solvents could increase the removal rate ofmajor constituents from plants. This research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of extraction methods on the main group of compounds, cytotoxicity, anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activity of Trachyspermum ammi fruits. Methods: To compare the quality of extracts earned from maceration and reflux techniques, the amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant property of T. ammi’s fruits extracts were determined; moreover, the cytotoxic activity against Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines (NALM-6) was conducted using MTT assay. Anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity of both extracts were also examined by Ellman’s method. Results: The extraction yield of the plant was significantly higher for maceration compared to reflux extraction. Also, both antioxidant activity and total flavonoid contents (IC50=132.95 µg/mL and 140.15 mg catechin/g dry extract, respectively) showed higher amounts considerably in the maceration extraction. In reverse, the content of phenolic compounds (147.28 mg gallic acid/g dry extract and 16.6 mg thymol/g dry extract) was elevated in the refluxed extract. The result exerted moderate inhibition on butyrylcholinesterase activity (IC50= 394.161 µg/mL) and cytotoxicity (IC50 =166.92±1.76 μg/mL for NALM-6 cell line) of the extract using maceration. Conclusion: The maceration method could provide additional amounts of major constituents and greater biological properties compared to the reflux technique.

Keywords


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