Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

Document Type: Original paper


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Faculty of Pharmacy, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IC-TUMS), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species.
Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases) and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP) of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT), respectively.
Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1), one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2), two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3) and verbascoside (5), along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4) and naringenin (6) were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL), compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL), without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL).
Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.


[1] Li JW, Ding SD, Ding XL. Optimization of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao. J Food Eng. 2007; 80(1): 176-183.

[2] Gao QH, Wu CS, Wang M. The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits. J Agric Food Chem. 2013; 61(14): 3351-3363.

[3] Al-Reza SM, Yoon JI, Kim HJ, Kim JS, Kang SC. Anti-inflammatory activity of seed essential oil from Zizyphus jujuba. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(2): 639-643.

[4] Jiang JG, Huang XJ, Chen J. Separation and purification of saponins from Semen Ziziphus jujuba and their sedative and hypnotic effects. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007; 59(8): 1175-1180.

[5] Ganachari MS, Shiv K, Bhat KG. Effect of Ziziphus jujuba leaves extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils. J Nat Rem. 2004; 4(1): 47-51.

[6] Huang X, Kojima-Yuasa A, Norikur T, Kennedy DO, Hasuma T, Matsui-Yuasa I. Mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 cells. Am J Chin Med. 2007; 35(3): 517-532.

[7] Mahajan RT, Chopda MZ. Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review. Phcog Rev. 2009; 3(6): 320-329.

[9] Sabzghabaee AM, Khayam I, Kelishadi R, Ghannadi A, Soltani R, Badri S, Shirani S. Effect of Zizyphus jujuba fruits on dyslipidemia in obese adolescents: a triple-masked randomized controlled clinical trial. Med Arch. 2013; 67(3): 156-159.

[10] Zhao Z, Li J, Wu X, Dai H, Gao X, Liu M, Tu P. Structure and immunological activities of two pectic polysaccharides from the fruits of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. jinsixiaozao Hort. Food Res Int. 2006; 39(8): 917-923.

[11] Hung CF, Hsu BY, Chang SC, Chen BH. Antiproliferation of melanoma cells by polysaccharide isolated from Zizyphus jujuba. Nutrition. 2012; 28(1): 98-105.

[12] Cheng G, Bai Y, Zhao Y, Tao J, Liu Y, Tu G, Ma L, Liao N, Xu X. Flavonoids from Zizyphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa. Tetrahedron. 2000; 56(45): 8915-8920.

[13] Kim YJ, Uyama H. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cell Mol Life Sci.2005; 62(15): 1707-1723.

[14] Solano F, Briganti S, Picardo M, Ghanem GH. Hypopigmenting agents: an updated review on biological, chemical and clinical aspects. Pigment Cell Res. 2006; 19(6): 550-571.

[15] Hajimehdipoor H, Gohari AR, Ajani Y, Saeidnia S. Comparative study of the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal extracts. Res J Pharmacogn. 2014; 1(3): 21-25.

[16] Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal. 2002; 10(3): 178-182.

[17] Bahadori MB, Mirzaei M. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth. Res J Pharmacogn. 2015; 2(2): 27-32.

[18] Momtaz S, Mapunya BM, Houghton PJ, Edgerly C, Hussein A, Naidoo S, Lall N. Tyrosinase inhibition by extracts and constituents of Sideroxylon inerme L. stem bark, used in South Africa for skin lightening. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 119(3): 507-512.

[19] Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983; 65(1-2): 55-63.

[20] Chan YY, Kim KH, Cheah SH. Inhibitory effects of Sargassum polycystum on tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 137(3): 1183-1188.

[21] Al-Farsi MA, Lee CY. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds. Food Chem. 2008; 108(3): 977-985.

[22] Jenshi Roobha J, Saravanakumar M, Aravindhan KM, Suganya Devi P. The effect of light, temperature, pH on stability of anthocyanin pigments in Musa acuminata bract. Res Plant Biol. 2011; 1(5): 5-12.

[23] Sarkhail P, Sarkheil P, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Shafiee A, Ostad N. Tyrosinase inhibitor and radical scavenger fractions and isolated compounds from aerial parts of Peucedanum knappii Bornm. Nat Prod Res. 2013; 27(10): 896-899.

[24] Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging. 2007; 2(2): 219-236.

[25] Sanchez-Ferrer A, Rodrıgez-Lopez JN, Garcıa-Carmona F. Tyrosinase: A comprehensive review of its mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995; 1247(1): 1-11.