Phytochemical and Anti-Inflammatory Analysis of Prunus africana Bark Extract

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Public Health, Biomedical Sciences and Technology, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya.

2 Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

3 Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

4 Department of Physical Sciences, Chuka University, Chuka, Kenya.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Inflammation is associated with various diseases; Prunus africana (Hook f.) is commonly used in Meru community of Kenya in management of inflammation. Medicinal plants contain phytochemicals associated with pharmacological activities; so, the aim of the present study was evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of Prunus africana bark extract and qualitative analysis phytochemical of its phytochemicals. Methods: Five hundred mg of the powdered P. africana stem bark was extracted using 1.5 liters of dichloromethane for 24 h. The anti- inflammatory activity was evaluated against carrageenan paw induced edema in mice. The ability of the extracts to suppress the paw inflammation was expressed as a percentage inhibition of paw edema in five groups each comprising of five mice. Group I was treated with DMSO, group II with diclofenac (100 mg/Kg) and experimental groups III, IV and V with 50, 100 and 150 mg/Kg of the plant extract. The ability of the extracts to suppress the paw inflammation was expressed as a percentage inhibition of paw edema in mice.  The qualitative phytochemical analysis was conducted using the standard protocols.  Results: The percentages paw edema inhibition after the 4th h in the positive control and the experimental groups I, II and III were 13.61, 32.85, 25.15 and 5.92%, respectively. The qualitative evaluation of stem bark extract illustrated presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolics and coumarins. Conclusion: Dichloromethane stem bark extract of the P. africana presented anti-inflammatory activity hence a possible candidate for extraction of active anti-inflammatory compounds. 


 

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Curatolo M, Arendt-Nielsen L, Petersen-Felix S. Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: mechanisms and clinical implications.  Phy Med Rehab Clin North Am. 2006; 17(2): 287-302.
[2] Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell. 2010; 140(6): 883-899.
[3] Maes M, Berk M, Goehler L, Song C, Anderson G, Gałecki P, Leonard B. Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways. BMC Med. 2012; 10(66): 1-19.
[4] Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, O‟Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013; 11(200): 1-16.
[5] Tamaddonfard E, Farshid AA, Hosseini L. Crocin alleviates the local paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Av J Phytomed. 2012; 2(2): 97-104.
[6] Hunskaar S, Hole K. The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain. 1987; 30(1): 103-114.
[7] Boschi ES, Leite CE, Saciura VC, Caberlon E, Lunardelli A, Bitencourt S. Anti‐inflammatory effects of low‐level laser therapy (660 nm) in the early phase in carrageenan‐induced pleurisy in rat. Lasers Surg Med. 2008; 40(7): 500-508.
[8] Oyebanji BO, Saba AB, Oridupa OA. Studies on the anti- inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of betulinic acid derived from Tetracera potatoria. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med. 2014; 11(1): 30-33.
[9] Estevão-Silva CF, Kummer R, Fachini-Queiroz FC, Grespan R, de Melo GAN, Baroni S. Anethole and eugenol reduce in vitro and in vivo leukocyte migration induced by fMLP, LTB4, and carrageenan.  J Nat Med. 2014; 68(3): 567-575.
[10] Xu J, Fan G, Chen S, Wu Y, Xu XM, Hsu CY. Methylprednisolone inhibition of TNF-α     expression and NF-kB activation after spinal cord injury in rats. Mol Brain Res. 1998; 59(2); 135-142.
[11] Long L, Soeken K, Ernst E. Herbal medicines for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Rheumatol. 2001; 40(7): 779-793.
[12] Gachie PK, Koech EK, Njunge JT, Simons J, Ndalut PK. Variation in yield and composition of crude bark extracts of P. africana in different provenances of Kenya. Forests Trees Liv. 2012; 21: 56-62.
[13] Hall JB, O’Brien EM, Sinclair FL. Prunus africana: a monograph. Bangor: School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, 2002.
[14] Griffin DL. Aridity and humidity: two aspects of the late Miocene climate of North Africa and the Mediterranean. Palaeogeo Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol. 2002; 182(1): 65-91.
[15] Kadu CA, Parich A, Schueler S, Konrad H, Muluvi GM. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters. Phytochemistry. 2012; 83: 70-78.
[16] Vinceti B, Loo J, Gaisberger H, van Zonneveld MJ, Schueler S. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables. PLoS One. 2013; Article ID e59987.
[17] Donovan JL, Meyer AS, Waterhouse AL. Phenolic composition and antioxidants activity of Prunes and prune juice (Prunus domestica). J Agri Food Chem. 1998; 46(4): 1247-1252.
[18] Carbin BE, Larsson B, Lindahl O. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols. Br J Urol. 1990; 66(6): 639-641.
[19] Kampa M, Alexaki V, Notas G, Nifli AP, Nistikaki A. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action. Breast Cancer Res. 2004; 6(2): 63-74.
[20] Stewart KM. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree? J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89(1): 3-13.
[21] Akah PA, Nwambie AI. Evaluation of Nigerian traditional medicines: 1. Plants used for rheumatic (inflammatory) disorders. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994; 42(3): 179-182.
[22] Jia W, Gao WY, Cui N, Xiao PG. Anti-inflammatory effects of an herbal medicine (Xuan-ju agent) on carrageenan and adjuvant- induced paw edema in rats.  J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89(1): 139-141.
[23] Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain. 1992; 51(1): 5-17.
[24] Deghrigue M, Lajili S, Turki M, Eltaiet N, Bouraout A. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastroprotective activities of Eunicella singularis fractions using in vivo assays. Annals Med Biomed Sci. 2015; 1(1): 23-28.
[25] Malviya S, Rawat S, Kharia A, Verma M. Medicinal attributes of Acacia nilotica Linn, A comprehensive review on ethnopharmacological claims.  Inter J Pharm Life Sci. 2011; 2(6): 830-837.
[26] Jain NK, Patil CS, Singh A, Kulkarni SK. A simple technique to evaluate inflammatory pain along with anti-inflammatory studies in carrageenan-induced paw edema. Indian J Pharmacol. 2001; 33(2): 114-115.
[27] Paschapur MS, Patil MB, Kumar R, Patil SR. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer L. male flowers (inflorescences) in experimental animals. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3(2): 49-54.
[28] Necas J, Bartosikov K. Carragenaan a review.  Vet Med. 2013; 58(4): 187-205.
[29] Kozo T, Akihiko H. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rats of diclofenac-sodium, felbinac and indomethacin patches. Int J Biomed Sci. 2011; 7(3): 222-229.
[30] Dirosa M, Giroud JP, Willoughby DA. Studies of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine. J Pathol. 1971; 104(1): 15-29.
[31] Tukappa NK, Ramesh LJ, Sanjeev CB, Hanumantapa BN. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and toxicity studies of methanolic extract of Rumex vesicarius Linn. Orient Pharmaceut Exp Med. 15(2): 113-121.
[32] Mwangi BM, Gitahi SM, Njagi JM, Mworia JK, Aliyu U, Njoroge WA, Mwonjoria KJ, Ngugi MP, Mburu ND. Anti-inflammatory properties of dichloromethane: methanolic leaf extracts of Caesalpina volkensii and Maytenus obscura in animal models.  Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2015; 7(1): 83-87.
[33] Jarko R, Hanna K, Tycho H, Dooman O, Tomi J, Jauko S. Prodrugs: designs and clinical application.  Nat Rev Drug Disc. 2008; 7(3): 255-270.
[34] Liju VB, Jeena K, Kuttan R. An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa L. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011; 43(5): 526-531.
[35] Mbiri JW, Sichangi K, Kisangau P, Wilton M, Ngugi MP. Anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic bark extract of Terminalia brownii in Wistar albino rats. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2016; 8(3): 1-5.
[36] Kumar S, Bajwa BS, Singh K, Kalia AN. Anti-inflammatory activity of herbal plants. Inter J Adv Pharm Biol Chem. 2013; 2(2): 77-88.
[37] Chi YS, Jong HG, Son HK, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP. Effects of naturally occurring prenylated flavonoids on enzymes metabolizing arachidonic acid: cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001; 62(9): 1185-1191.
[38] Jang D, Cuendet M, Hawthorne M, Kardono L, Kawanishi K, Fong H. Prenylated flavonoids of the leaves of Mucaranga conifera with inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2. Phytomed. 2002; 61(7): 867-872.
[39] Vasudevan M, Gunnam KK, Parle M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Thespesia populnea bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 109(2): 264-270.
[40] Samatha T, Shyamsundarachary R, Srinivas P, Swamy RS. Quantification of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents in extracts of Oroxylum Indicum L. Kurz. Asian J Pharmacol Clin Res. 2012; 5(4): 177-179.
[41] Ghasemzadeh A, Ghasemzadeh N. Flavonoids and phenolic acids: role and biochemical activity in plants and human. J Med Plants Res. 2011; 5(31): 6697-6703.
[42] Salawu OA, Chindo BA, Tijani AY, Adzu B. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antiplasmodial effects of the methanolic extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga. Med Plants Res. 2008; 2(8): 213-218.
[43] Ferrandiz ML, Alcaraz MJ. Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids. Agen Acts. 1991; 32(3):  283-288.
[44] Barbosa-Filho JM, Piuvezam MR, Moura MD, Silva MS, Lima KVB, da-Cunha EVL. Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: a twenty-century review.  Rev Brasil de Farmacognosia. 2006; 16(1): 109-139.
[45] Souto AL, Tavares JF, Da Silva MS, Diniz FM, de Athayde- Filho PF, Barbosa Filho JM.  Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: an update from 2000 to 2010. Molecules.  2011; 16(10):  8515-8534.
[46] Smith G, Bertone AL, Kaeding C, Simmons EJ, Apostoles S.  Anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied dimethyl sulfoxide gel on endotoxin-induced synovitis in horses. Am J Vet Res. 1998; 59(9): 1149-1152.