The Role of Allium saralicum Extract on Prevention of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Failure: an Experimental Study

Document Type: Original paper

Authors

1 Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

2 Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

3 Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common analgesic medicine whose overdose leads to severe hepatic dysfunction. Due to the known antioxidant properties of Alliumspecies, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Allium saralicum plant on APAP induced liver toxicity. Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of A. saralicum was prepared by maceration and ultrasonic methods. Forty-two rats in seven groups were treated by gavage as follows: groups 1 and 2 received normal saline, groups 3 received 400 mg/kg of A. saralicum hydro-alcoholic extract, and the groups 4-7 were treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. saralicum extract, respectively. After two consecutive weeks, the therapeutic groups, as well as the positive control (APAP) group, were administered a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg). After 48 hours, the animals were anesthetized, and blood and liver samples were collected for histological and biochemical examinations.Results: Our findings indicated that APAP caused a significant rise in ALT (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALP (p<0.001) and LDH (p<0.001) serum levels, total and direct bilirubin (p<0.001), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO; p<0.001) and nitric oxide (NO; p<0.001). In addition, APAP let to the decreasing of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p< 0.001), total thiol molecules (TTM; p<0.001), and structural changes in the hepatic tissue. Following administration ofA. saralicum extract, a remarkable improvement was observed in the functional and oxidative stress indices of liver tissue alongside histopathologic alterations. Conclusion: Our results showed that A. saralicum extractsignificantly improved APAP-induced hepatic failure through inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

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